Monday 18th June 2018

Resource Clips


Posts tagged ‘zinc’

Pistol Bay Mining releases zinc-copper assays from Ontario, prepares for new drilling

June 13th, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 13, 2018

As a long-overdue modern exploration program continues on northwestern Ontario’s Confederation Lake, Pistol Bay Mining TSXV:PST released assays for an initial three-hole 1,555-metre program on the property’s Arrow zone. The results “confirm the consistent nature of mineralization in the Arrow zone and give us more confidence in the existing mineral resource estimate,” noted president/CEO Charles Desjardins. The assays show:

Hole GL18-01

  • 0.73% copper, 2.22% zinc, 12 g/t silver, 0.307 g/t gold and 0.03% lead for 4.34% zinc-equivalent over 10.9 metres, starting at 432.7 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 0.69% copper, 4.49% zinc, 22.2 g/t silver, 0.217 g/t gold and 0.1% lead for 6.65% zinc-equivalent over 2.9 metres)
  • (and including 1.16% copper, 1.48% zinc, 12.8 g/t silver, 0.64 g/t gold and 0.01% lead for 4.91% zinc-equivalent over 3 metres)
Pistol Bay Mining releases zinc-copper assays from Ontario, prepares for new drilling

Drilling will soon resume
at Confederation Lake’s
Fredart zone.

GL18-03

  • 0.13% copper, 1.13% zinc, 3.3 g/t silver, 0.044 g/t gold and 0.02% lead for 1.54% zinc-equivalent over 12.9 metres, starting at 563.1 metres
  • (including 0.2% copper, 1.93% zinc, 4.3 g/t silver, 0.083 g/t gold and 0.04% lead for 2.54% zinc-equivalent over 3.8 metres)
  • (which includes 0.11% copper, 2.69% zinc, 3.4 g/t silver, 0.04 g/t gold and 0.07% lead for 3.09% zinc-equivalent over 1.5 metres)
  • (and also includes 0.48% copper, 2.92% zinc, 8.5 g/t silver, 0.15 g/t gold and 0.05% lead for 4.28% zinc-equivalent over 1.3 metres)

True widths weren’t provided.

In early May the company released the program’s first hole, showing 5.15% zinc-equivalent over 12.85 metres.

Last year Pistol Bay filed a 43-101 resource for Arrow, with a base case 3% zinc-equivalent cutoff for an inferred category showing:

  • 2.1 million tonnes averaging 5.78% zinc, 0.72% copper,19.5 g/t silver and 0.6 g/t gold, for a zinc-equivalent grade of 8.42%

Contained amounts come to:

  • 274 million pounds zinc, 34.3 million pounds copper, 1.33 million ounces silver and 41,000 ounces gold

As the rig moves to the project’s Fredart copper-gold zone, the team keeps busy re-compiling all Arrow drill results and incorporating new surveys of collar locations and azimuths using differential GPS equipment, Pistol Bay stated.

Although Fredart underwent extensive drilling between 1965 and 1985, the zone lacks a 43-101 resource due to uncertainty about drill hole locations and the lack of previous core to confirm historic assays, the company added.

The drill campaign follows the 15,000-hectare property’s first survey by modern geophysics which, in another first for Confederation Lake, was conducted on a regional scale.

Read more about Pistol Bay Mining.

Streamers turn to cobalt as Vale extends Voisey’s Bay nickel operations

June 11th, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 11, 2018

It was a day of big moves for energy minerals as China bought into Ivanhoe, Vale lengthened Voisey’s and streaming companies went after the Labrador nickel mine’s cobalt.

On June 11 Robert Friedland announced CITIC Metal would pay $723 million for a 19.9% interest in Ivanhoe Mines TSX:IVN, surpassing the boss’ own 17% stake to make the Chinese state-owned company Ivanhoe’s largest single shareholder. Another $78 million might also materialize, should China’s Zijin Mining Group decide to exercise its anti-dilution rights to increase its current 9.9% piece of Ivanhoe.

Streamers turn to cobalt as Vale extends Voisey’s Bay nickel operations

At peak production, Voisey’s underground operations are expected to
ship about 45,000 tonnes of nickel concentrate annually to Vale’s
processing plant at Long Harbour, Newfoundland.

Proceeds would help develop the flagship Kamoa-Kakula copper-cobalt mine in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Platreef platinum-palladium-nickel-copper-gold mine in South Africa, as well as upgrade the DRC’s historic Kipushi zinc-copper-silver-germanium mine. Ivanhoe and Zijin each hold a 39.6% share in the Kamoa-Kakula joint venture.

Even bigger news came from St. John’s, where Newfoundland and Labrador Premier Dwight Ball joined Vale NYSE:VALE brass to herald the company’s decision to extend Voisey’s Bay operations by building an underground mine.

The announcement marked the 16th anniversary of Vale’s original decision to put Voisey (a Friedland company discovery) into production. Mining began in 2005, producing about $15 billion worth of nickel, copper and cobalt so far. Open pit operations were expected to end by 2022. Although a 2013 decision to go ahead with underground development was confirmed in 2015, the commitment seemed uncertain as nickel prices fell. That changed dramatically over the last 12 months.

With construction beginning this summer, nearly $2 billion in new investment should have underground operations running by April 2021, adding at least 15 years to Voisey’s life. The company estimates 16,000 person-years of employment during five years of construction, followed by 1,700 jobs at the underground mine and Long Harbour processing plant, with 2,135 person-years in indirect and induced employment annually.

Nickel’s 75% price improvement over the last year must have prodded Vale’s decision. But streaming companies were quick to go after Voisey’s cobalt. In separate deals Wheaton Precious Metals TSX:WPM and Cobalt 27 Capital TSXV:KBLT have agreed to buy a total of 75% of the mine’s cobalt beginning in 2021, paying US$390 million and US$300 million respectively. They foresee an average 2.6 million pounds of cobalt per year for the first 10 years, with a life-of-mine average of 2.4 million pounds annually.

Both companies attribute cobalt’s attraction to clean energy demand and a decided lack of DRC-style jurisdictional risk. But Vale also emphasizes nickel’s promise as a battery metal. Last month spokesperson Robert Morris told Metal Bulletin that nickel demand for EVs could rise 10-fold by 2025, reaching 350,000 to 500,000 tonnes.

Total nickel demand currently sits at slightly more than two million tonnes, Morris said. New supply would call for price increases well above the record levels set this year, he added.

Emerita Resources steps out to cut 5.7% zinc over 8 metres in Brazil

June 7th, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 7, 2018

Three more holes from eastern Brazil’s Salobro zinc project have Emerita Resources TSXV:EMO encouraged about potential expansion to an historic, non-43-101 Vale NYSE:VALE estimate. The results follow the first two holes, released June 1, of a program that’s expected to sink 23 holes totalling about 3,500 metres. Seventeen holes have been finished so far.

Emerita Resources cuts 5.7% zinc over 8 metres in Brazil

DDH-007 stepped out 100 metres from an historic, non-43-101 interval of 6.09% zinc and 0.73% lead over 10.43 metres. The new intercept hit:

  • 5.7% zinc and 0.84% lead, for 6.54% zinc and lead, over 8 metres, starting at 239.5 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 8.82% zinc and 1.48% lead, for 10.3% zinc and lead, over 4 metres)

Two near-surface holes tested potential for a starter pit in an area where an historic, non-43-101 trench assay showed 1.35% zinc over 22 metres. The new assays show:

DDH-005

  • 4.59% zinc and 0.08% lead, for 4.67% zinc and lead, over 1.5 metres, starting at 65.82 metres

DDH-006A

  • 1.52% zinc and 0.01% lead, for 1.53% zinc and lead, over 3 metres, starting at 26 metres

True widths weren’t provided.

Scheduled for Q3 is a resource to update Vale’s now historic, non-43-101 estimate of 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent, using a 3.5% zinc-lead cutoff. The campaign will also collect 400 kilograms of material for metallurgical tests.

Last week Emerita released the current program’s first two assays, showing 4.05% zinc and 1.24% lead over 9.62 metres, along with 5.15% zinc and 0.51% lead over 3.32 metres. The company also reported that new assays from Vale core showed consistency with historic results, easing the way to a 43-101 resource.

Emerita has a 75% stake in the 1,210-hectare property, with the remainder held by IMS Engenharia Mineral Ltda. The region’s infrastructure includes paved roads, rail, power and water.

Emerita also shares in a 50/50 joint venture on the Plaza Norte zinc-lead project in northern Spain’s Reocin mining district, where the company has drill permitting underway to update historic work.

In December the company closed an oversubscribed private placement of $4.24 million.

Read more about Emerita Resources.

Drilling, re-sampling move Emerita Resources towards Q3 Brazilian zinc resource

June 1st, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 1, 2018

While a rig remains busy, new assays from old core show consistency with historic results, bringing Emerita Resources TSXV:EMO closer to a 43-101 resource on its Salobro zinc project in eastern Brazil.

Drilling, re-sampling move Emerita Resources towards Q3 Brazilian zinc resource

Emerita Resources has assays pending from
another 15 holes so far on its current drill campaign.

The company sent 1,184 duplicate core samples from historic Vale NYSE:VALE drilling to the lab, where 55 samples with intervals grading over 1% zinc were considered for statistical purposes.

Compared with Vale’s data, the new assays demonstrate that “the previous historic results are consistent, unbiased and meet the QA/QC requirements to support a mineral resource estimate to NI 43-101 standards,” Emerita stated.

The results provide “a powerful advantage for the project that saves the company considerable time, money and effort,” commented chairperson David Gower. “The project has an abundance of high-quality historic drilling data that allows us to expedite the program as we develop the Salobro project further.”

At a 3.5% zinc-lead cutoff, Vale’s historic, non-43-101 estimate showed 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent. Hoping to expand those numbers in a 43-101 resource planned for Q3, Emerita has so far completed 17 holes totalling 2,740 metres of an anticipated 23-hole, 3,500-metre program. Last week the company released results from the campaign’s first two holes:

DDH-001

  • 4.05% zinc and 1.24% lead for 5.29% zinc plus lead over 9.62 metres, starting at 257.9 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 9.74% zinc and 3.66% lead for 13.4% zinc plus lead over 2.72 metres)

DDH-002

  • 5.15% zinc and 0.51% lead for 5.66% zinc plus lead over 3.32 metres, starting at 108.38 metres

True widths weren’t provided. The program will also extract 400 kilograms of material for metallurgical tests.

Emerita closed its 75% acquisition of the 1,210-hectare property last March, retaining the right to pick up the other 25%. Regional infrastructure features paved roads, rail, power and water.

In northern Spain’s Reocín mining district the company has drill permitting underway for Plaza Norte, a zinc-lead 50/50 joint venture that also features considerable historic work and regional infrastructure.

Emerita closed an oversubscribed $4.24-million private placement in December.

Read more about Emerita Resources.

Emerita Resources releases first zinc-lead assays from its Salobro project in Brazil

May 23rd, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 23, 2018

The near-term goal is a 43-101 resource to replace an historic estimate as drilling continues at Emerita Resources’ (TSXV:EMO) Salobro zinc project in eastern Brazil’s Minas Gerais state. Out of a planned 23-hole, 3,500-metre campaign, the crew has so far sunk 15 holes totalling 2,133.9 metres, with the first two assays released May 23.

Infill hole DDH-001 was collared within 24 metres of an exceptional historic Vale NYSE:VALE interval of 10.39% zinc and 2.13% lead over 13.92 metres. The new hole revealed:

  • 4.05% zinc and 1.24% lead for 5.29% zinc plus lead over 9.62 metres, starting at 257.9 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 9.74% zinc and 3.66% lead for 13.4% zinc plus lead over 2.72 metres)
Emerita Resources releases first zinc-lead assays from its Salobro project in Brazil

A high-grade historic zinc estimate from
Vale brought Emerita Resources to Brazil.

DDH-002 extended an historic mineralized zone approximately 30 metres up-dip, with an assay grading:

  • 5.15% zinc and 0.51% lead for 5.66% zinc plus lead over 3.32 metres, starting at 108.38 metres

True widths weren’t provided.

Vale’s historic, non-43-101 estimate came to 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent using a 3.5% zinc-lead cutoff. Emerita hopes to increase those numbers in a 43-101 resource scheduled for July. The company filed a 43-101 technical report on the 1,210-hectare property in March.

The current program includes six large-diameter holes to collect 400 kilograms of material for metallurgical tests.

Emerita closed its 75% acquisition of Salobro in March, with the right to take on the remaining 25% from IMS Engenharia Mineral Ltda. The region’s infrastructure includes paved roads, cell phone reception, rail, power and water.

Emerita also partners in a 50/50 joint venture on Plaza Norte, a northern Spain zinc-lead project with considerable historic work and regional infrastructure that sits adjacent to the former Reocin mine that produced about 62 million tonnes averaging 11% zinc and 1.4% lead up to 2003. With drill permitting underway, Emerita could produce a maiden resource for Plaza Norte in early 2019.

Last December the company closed an oversubscribed private placement of $4.24 million.

Read more about Emerita Resources.

Preparations move Belmont Resources toward Nevada lithium drilling

May 23rd, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 23, 2018

With approval now in from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Belmont Resources TSXV:BEA comes closer to activating a rig on its Kibby Basin lithium project. The next step calls for an application with the Nevada Division of Minerals to carry out exploration drilling, sample soils and groundwater, and install a water well to test flow rates for any aquifers that are encountered.

Preparations move Belmont Resources toward Nevada lithium drilling

This year’s magnetotelluric geophysical program helped identify
drill targets for Belmont Resources’ Kibby Basin lithium project.

“This is an important step in the progress of our assessment of the potential brines below the Kibby property,” stated president/CEO James Place. “The proposal submitted to the BLM was for work of a significant scope, including water well installation and monitoring, so the quick approval is a sign that the federal regulators are satisfied with the details of our plans.”

Located 65 kilometres north of Clayton Valley, the 2,760-hectare property underwent deep-sensing magnetotelluric geophysics earlier this year, finding a conductive zone that starts at about 500 metres in depth. The program followed last year’s initial drill campaign that sunk two holes totalling 624 metres. Core samples graded between 70 ppm and 200 ppm Li2O, with 13 of 25 samples surpassing 100 ppm.

Last week Belmont announced the appointment of Ian Graham to the company’s advisory board. A former principal geologist with De Beers’ South African division, he also spent 15 years with Rio Tinto NYSE:RIO where he took part in evaluation and pre-development projects including the Diavik diamond mine in the Northwest Territories and the Resolution copper deposit in Arizona. He also oversaw permitting for the Eagle nickel mine in Michigan and played a key role in the initial economic assessment for the Bunder diamond project in India. More recently Graham served as CEO of United Energy Corp, which held a Nevada lithium project.

Belmont also holds the Mid-Corner/Johnson Croft property in New Brunswick, where historic, non-43-101 sampling has shown zinc, copper and cobalt potential. In Saskatchewan the company shares a 50/50 interest with International Montoro Resources TSXV:IMT in the Crackingstone and Orbit Lake uranium properties.

Last month Belmont closed the final tranche of a private placement totalling $198,000.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with Belmont CFO/director Gary Musil.

Jobs, revenues, share prices benefit as higher commodity prices boost B.C. mining

May 11th, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 11, 2018

Jobs, revenues, share prices benefit as higher commodity prices boost B.C. mining

A 75%/25% partnership of Copper Mountain Mining TSX:CMMC and Mitsubishi
Materials brought a former mine back into production, employing 430 workers.

 

The bull’s still not back but higher commodity prices continue to sustain a mood of cautious optimism among British Columbia miners, PricewaterhouseCoopers assures us. Its 50th annual report on B.C. mining sketched a broad picture of the province’s industry by surveying 13 companies, focusing on 15 operating mines, a smelter and seven projects in the exploration, permitting or environmental review stage.

Among survey participants, gross revenue hit $11.7 billion in 2017, a 35% jump from the previous year and reflecting an upward trend in the mining cycle. (Except for commodity prices, all figures are given in Canadian dollars.) Governments scooped up $859 million in total mining revenues from those companies last year, compared with $650 million in 2016.

Shareholders fared especially well, reaping 31.1% pre-tax gains from the companies involved, compared with 13.5% in 2016 and 6.3% in 2015. “This is the highest return we’ve seen in recent years and it has surpassed the historic high levels of 2012,” PwC stated.

Direct employment among the companies climbed to 10,196 jobs, compared with 9,329 in 2016 and 9,221 in 2015. PwC attributed most of the increase to Conuma Coal Resources’ two operating mines in the northeast.

Indeed, the participants’ metallurgical coal revenue rose to $5.2 billion from $3 billion in 2016 and $2 billion in 2015. Prices averaged $173 a tonne last year, up from $115 in 2016 and $101 in 2015. At a 50% increase over 2016, the steelmaking stuff struck the highest price increase of any commodity included in the report.

Revenue from copper concentrate came to nearly $1.9 billion, after $1.8 billion in 2016 and $2 billion in 2015. Average red metal prices rose 27% to $2.80 a pound, compared with $2.21 in 2016 and $2.50 in 2015.

Despite a slight decrease in shipments, a 38% price increase lifted participants’ zinc revenue to $1.2 billion, compared with $877 million in 2016 and $818 million the previous year. Prices swelled to an average $1.31 a pound, compared with $0.95 in 2016 and $0.87 in 2015.

Participants’ gold revenues rose to $829 million from $651 million in 2016 and $519 million in 2015. Although B.C. produces the yellow metal largely as a copper byproduct, the 2017 increase largely came from Pretium Resources’ (TSX:PVG) Brucejack mine, which began commercial production that year. Average prices underwhelmed, however, at $1,259 an ounce, although slightly less depressed than the $1,248 in 2016 and $1,160 in 2015.

Silver revenues slipped to $509 million from $589 million the previous year and $535 million in 2015. Average prices wallowed around $17.08 an ounce, compared with $17.11 in 2016, up from $15.71 in 2015. B.C. mines generally garner silver as a byproduct of metals like copper, gold, lead and zinc.

As for lead, it dropped to $224 million in revenues from $255 million the previous year, despite prices rising to $1.05 a pound from $0.85 in 2016.

Molybdenum more than doubled to $104 million from $45 million in 2016 and $51 million in 2015, thanks to higher volumes and prices, which reached $7.07 a pound from $6.37 in 2016.

[The return on shares for participating companies] is the highest return we’ve seen in recent years and it has surpassed the historic high levels of 2012.

Saying “the worst may be over,” PwC stated: “Many in the industry haven’t felt this positive since it was recovering from the fallout of the 2008-09 global financial crisis. There’s cautious optimism the industry will continue to recover.”

But a warning came from an otherwise upbeat Bryan Cox, president of the Mining Association of B.C.: “Mining projects are capital-intensive, multi-year commitments, from exploration to mine development and operation, necessitating clarity, consistency and co-ordination from governments for investors to deploy capital. If any one of those three Cs is missing, then capital investment is at risk.”

This marks PwC’s 50th such report since 1967, when “Lester B. Pearson was Canada’s prime minister, W.A.C. Bennett was the premier of British Columbia and [get this!] the Toronto Maple Leafs won the Stanley Cup. As for mining, in 1967 the price of gold was about $35 per ounce, copper was trading around $0.50 per pound and the Britannia mine, now a museum, was still producing copper, gold, silver and other metals and minerals.”

Download 50 years on… The mining industry in British Columbia 2017.

Emerita Resources chairperson David Gower discusses the Salobro zinc project in Brazil

May 10th, 2018

…Read more

Inmates caught tunnelling below prison were miners, not escapees

May 8th, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 8, 2018

Illicit diamonds and metals, often from conflict sources, plague the Democratic Republic of Congo’s mineral-rich reputation. But in a new twist on illegal mining, authorities have discovered a covert diamond operation run by prisoners right underneath their prison. And while the country’s notorious conflict operations often use forced labour, this mine was popular enough with its workers to retain some of them after their sentences finished.

Inmates caught tunnelling below prison were miners, not escapees

According to a UN report, the DRC’s Osio Prison was
on its way to “becoming a model of self-sustainability.”
(Photo: UN Stabilization Mission in the
Democratic Republic of Congo)

The mine was discovered under the Osio Prison in the country’s north, DRC radio Okapi reported. A raid found over 30 people, including a prison guard, working underground or toiling in their cells at mining-related tasks.

Some prisoners had refused to leave the institution after finishing their sentences. Non-prisoners built temporary homes nearby to join the operation.

Miners said they extracted and sold gems weighing between half and three-quarters of a carat.

The prison guard or a police officer involved was sentenced to 15 days, Okapi added. Others were expelled from the site.

A 2011 United Nations report described Osio as a “high-security prison that houses 191 inmates, including 30 sentenced to capital punishment, 18 to life and 143 to prison terms ranging from three to 20 years.” The UN stated the prison’s agricultural and stock-raising projects had put it “on path to becoming a model of self-sustainability.”

Some companies that have recently run afoul of the DRC government include Glencore, its majority-held Katanga Mining TSX:KAT, AngloGold Ashanti NYSE:AU, Ivanhoe Mines TSX:IVN and Rangold Resources. Among the issues are a new mining code and tax structure, along with increased national ownership.

By far the world’s largest supplier of cobalt and a major source of copper along with diamonds, zinc, tin and gold, the DRC faces political instability and possible civil war after President Joseph Kabila refused to step down when his term ended in November 2016.

Pistol Bay drills 5.15% zinc-equivalent over 12.85 metres at NW Ontario’s Confederation Lake

May 3rd, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 3, 2018

With three holes totalling 1,525 metres now complete out of a 3,500-metre winter-spring campaign, Pistol Bay Mining TSXV:PST released the first assay on May 2. The initial holes targeted the Arrow zone, part of the 100%-optioned, 15,000-hectare Confederation Lake project in northwestern Ontario.

Sunk on Arrow’s main sulphide zone, hole DDH GL18-02 gave up Russian doll interval-within-interval assays as follows:

Pistol Bay drills 5.15% zinc-equivalent over 12.85 metres at NW Ontario’s Confederation Lake

Pistol Bay hopes to upgrade last year’s
resource estimate for the project’s Arrow zone.

  • 3.07% zinc, 0.42% copper, 0.12% lead, 22.2 g/t silver and 0.59 g/t gold for 5.15% zinc-equivalent over 12.85 metres, starting at 422.95 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 3.82% zinc, 0.5% copper, 0.15% lead, 27.3 g/t silver and 0.71 g/t gold for 6.33% zinc-equivalent over 9.8 metres)
  • (which includes 4.83% zinc, 0.56% copper, 0.15% lead, 26.4 g/t silver and 0.45 g/t gold for 7.13% zinc-equivalent over 7.3 metres)
  • (which includes 8.88% zinc, 0.92% copper, 0.38% lead, 44.3 g/t silver and 0.38 g/t gold for 12.3% zinc-equivalent over 2 metres)
  • (which includes 22% zinc, 0.28% copper, 0.77% lead, 74.9 g/t silver and 0.77 g/t gold for 24.8% zinc-equivalent over 0.6 metres)

Overlapping some of these intervals was a three-metre section described as “conspicuous gold enrichment towards the top of the main sulphide zone”:

  • 0.83% zinc, 0.33% copper, 0.17% lead, 40.4 g/t silver and 1.65 g/t gold for 4.41% zinc-equivalent over 3 metres, starting at 426 metres

A 43-101 resource released last year for Arrow used a base case 3% zinc-equivalent cutoff for an inferred category showing:

  • 2.1 million tonnes averaging 5.78% zinc, 0.72% copper,19.5 g/t silver and 0.6 g/t gold, for a zinc-equivalent grade of 8.42%

Contained amounts come to:

  • 274 million pounds zinc, 34.3 million pounds copper, 1.33 million ounces silver and 41,000 ounces gold

But recent drilling suggests Arrow might consist of “two separate zones arranged en echelon or that the southwestern part is displaced from the northeastern part by a fault,” Pistol Bay stated.

Still to come are assays for the two remaining holes.

From Arrow, the rig moves about eight kilometres west to sink three more holes on the property’s Fredart A zone, also known as Copperlode A. Work dating to the 1960s resulted in two conflicting historic, non-43-101 estimates of 386,000 tonnes averaging 1.56% copper and 33.6 g/t silver, or 219,500 tonnes averaging 1.95% copper and 41.8 g/t silver.

The drill program follows last year’s VTEM-Plus survey, the area’s first exposure to state-of-the-art regional geophysics.