Saturday 19th August 2017

Resource Clips


Posts tagged ‘vanadium’

King’s Bay prepares for Newfoundland copper-cobalt field program

July 26th, 2017

by Greg Klein | July 26, 2017

Update: Effective August 14, 2017, King’s Bay Gold begins trading as King’s Bay Resources TSXV:KBG.

Copper-cobalt findings dating to the 19th century have King’s Bay Gold TSXV:KBG about to begin Phase I exploration on its Trump Island project off Newfoundland’s northern coast. The company has a team ready to study historic data prior to geophysics and grab sampling on the 200-hectare property. Depending on results, Phase II could incorporate drilling.

King’s Bay prepares for Newfoundland copper-cobalt field program

The property’s exploration history dates to 1863, when a Cornish miner sunk a six-metre shaft to follow a zone of massive chalcopyrite. Mineralization reportedly expanded with depth but the technology of the time prevented further excavation. Nevertheless the Cousin Jack reportedly shipped to Wales high-grade copper-cobalt material archaically recorded as “40 pounds per fathom.”

Grab samples collected near the shaft in 1999 showed historic, non-43-101 results up to 3.8% copper, 0.3% cobalt, 2.9 g/t gold and 10.9 g/t silver.

Located seven miles south of the town of Twillingate, Trump Island has boat access to a highway 1.5 kilometres away.

Last month King’s Bay reported geophysical results from another copper-cobalt project, this one along a provincial highway in Labrador. Airborne VTEM over the 24,000-hectare Lynx Lake property revealed a shallow anomaly of high resistivity about 400 metres in diameter and 50 to 300 metres in depth. The results came from the project’s West Pit, where historic, non-43-101 grab samples showed up to 1.03% copper, 0.566% cobalt, 0.1% nickel, 5 g/t silver, 0.36% chromium, 0.39% molybdenum and 0.23% vanadium.

Lynx Lake’s summer agenda includes higher-resolution ground geophysics, possible stripping to expose bedrock south of the pit and follow-up work on historic soil samples on the property’s southeastern area, along with mapping and sampling over both areas.

The company’s portfolio also includes three Quebec properties with historic, non-43-101 cobalt results.

Earlier this month King’s Bay closed a first tranche totalling $316,250 of a private placement offered up to $725,000. The company expects to close the second tranche by the end of August. King’s Bay closed a previous financing of $938,752 in January.

Read about cobalt supply and demand.

See an infographic about cobalt.

Geophysical anomaly heightens King’s Bay interest in Labrador cobalt project

June 19th, 2017

by Greg Klein | June 19, 2017

Update: Effective August 14, 2017, King’s Bay Gold begins trading as King’s Bay Resources TSXV:KBG.

Newly analyzed data has King’s Bay Gold TSXV:KBG planning to resume its search for copper and cobalt beside the Trans-Labrador Highway. Results from last winter’s 382-line-kilometre airborne VTEM survey over the Lynx Lake project reveal a shallow anomaly of high resistivity estimated at about 400 metres in diameter and 50 to 300 metres in depth. The finding comes from the property’s West Pit, where historic, non-43-101 grab samples assayed up to 1.03% copper, 0.566% cobalt, 0.1% nickel, 5 g/t silver, 0.36% chromium, 0.39% molybdenum and 0.23% vanadium.

Geophysical anomaly heightens King’s Bay interest in Labrador cobalt project

Cutting right through the property, the highway offers year-round access to the town of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, about 1.5 hours
away. Powerlines are under construction along the northern
part of the property.

Summer plans now call for higher-resolution ground geophysics over the target area, potentially followed by overburden stripping to expose bedrock south of the pit. The crew will also follow up on historic soil sample anomalies on the property’s southeastern area. Detailed mapping and sampling will cover both areas.

Interest began in the property as the highway was being built in 2008. A contractor with prospecting experience noticed disseminated and massive sulphides beside the new route. Along with the West Pit results, grab samples east of the highway brought non-43-101 results up to 1.39% copper, 0.94% cobalt, 0.21% nickel and 6.5 g/t silver.

Lynx Lake began as a 2,000-hectare acquisition which King’s Bay expanded to about 24,000 hectares following a review of data from government regional low-resolution magnetic surveys and preliminary handheld EM surveys.

The quest for cobalt has led King’s Bay to other acquisitions. In February the company announced a 100% option on the Trump Island copper-cobalt property in Newfoundland. Earlier that month King’s Bay picked up three Quebec properties with historic, non-43-101 cobalt sampling results.

The company closed a $938,752 private placement in January.

Read about cobalt supply and demand.

See an infographic about cobalt.

Kapuskasing targets zinc past-producer to bolster Newfoundland presence

May 18th, 2017

by Greg Klein | May 18, 2017

A former zinc mine with potential for another discovery would expand Kapuskasing Gold’s (TSXV:KAP) portfolio of Newfoundland prospects for high-performing metals. Under a non-binding letter of intent announced May 18, the company would get the 1,050-hectare Daniel’s Harbour property on the Rock’s Great Northern Peninsula.

The announcement follows a recent acquisition of proximal claims by Altius Minerals TSX:ALS, but the former mine sits on property covered by the Kapuskasing deal.

Kapuskasing targets zinc past-producer to bolster Newfoundland presence

In operation from 1975 to 1990, Daniel’s Harbour produced around seven million tonnes averaging 7.8% zinc. A chief characteristic was the mine’s Mississippi Valley Type deposit, a kind that characteristically occurs in clusters or districts, Kapuskasing stated. “There remains potential in the area of the old mine workings of the historic ore bodies continuing at depth or along the favourable breccia horizon,” the company added.

Subject to due diligence and approvals, the 100% acquisition calls for $60,000, 1.75 million shares and $100,000 of spending within two years. A 3% NSR applies, two-thirds of which can be bought back for $2 million. Should Kapuskasing define a resource of five million tonnes at a grade to be determined, the vendor gets a $50,000 bonus.

The news comes amid a busy few months as Kapuskasing collects properties in Newfoundland and Labrador. The company began in March with the acquisition of eight properties offering potential for copper, cobalt or vanadium. Among the standouts is Lady Pond, which an LOI announced last week would expand to 1,625 hectares covering historic mine workings. Surface grab samples graded up to 3.3% copper, 0.12% cobalt and 813 ppb gold.

While previous operators focused on copper, Kapuskasing sees potential for other metals including cobalt. The company has drilling planned later this year.

Another recently expanded March acquisition is King’s Court, now 2,275 hectares covering at least 10 copper showings at surface. Historic channel samples included 14% copper over three metres, 9.3% over 10 metres, 19% over 2.13 metres and 15.87% over 2.59 metres, along with cobalt samples up to 0.24%. The company has sent a 4.79-metre section of drill core to be re-assayed for cobalt and other elements.

Additional acquisitions bring with them historic, non-43-101 results:

  • Alexis, with grab samples up to 0.422% nickel and 0.822% cobalt

  • Cape Charles, with grab samples up to 1.12% copper, 0.47% nickel and 0.526% cobalt

  • Hayes, with a reported 27,000 tonnes averaging 54% iron, 9% titanium and 0.2% vanadium

  • Indian Head, with two dormant mines and iron-titanium-vanadium mineralization

  • Iron Mountain, with grab samples up to 39.8% iron and 0.26% vanadium

  • Ross Lake, with drill intercepts of 21.49% titanium dioxide, 0.24% vanadium and 0.16% chromium oxide over 13 metres; as well as 15.9% titanium dioxide, 0.2% vanadium and 0.13% chromium oxide over 11 metres

Again, those are historic, non-43-101 results.

With Daniel’s Harbour and Lady Pond as dual flagships, Kapuskasing has a busy year planned. Last month the company offered private placements totalling up to $750,000, including up to $250,000 in flow-through.

King’s Bay flies geophysics over Labrador copper-cobalt project

February 28th, 2017

by Greg Klein | February 28, 2017

Following a 12-fold expansion of the property last month, King’s Bay Gold TSXV:KBG announced a VTEM survey now airborne on the Lynx Lake copper-cobalt project in southeastern Labrador. Survey operator Geotech Ltd says its proprietary system reaches more than 800 metres in depth, featuring high spatial resolution as well as a low base frequency to pass through conductive overburden. “This system is advertised to be able to delineate potential drill hole targets from the airborne results,” King’s Bay stated. The survey’s expected to wrap up by mid-April.

King’s Bay flies geophysics over Labrador copper-cobalt project

Field work revealed gossan and
massive sulphides at Lynx Lake.

Lynx Lake’s potential came to light after the Trans-Labrador Highway opened up the region in 2008. Grab samples from the 24,000-hectare property’s east side showed non-43-101 results up to 1.39% copper, 0.94% cobalt, 0.21% nickel and 6.5 g/t silver. On the west side, non-43-101 grab samples assayed up to 1.03% copper, 0.566% cobalt, 0.1% nickel, 5 g/t silver, 0.36% chromium, 0.39% molybdenum and 0.23% vanadium.

A regional low-res magnetic survey conducted by the province and a hand-held EM device brought preliminary indications of strong conductors in the area. A 90-minute drive from the town of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, Lynx Lake has powerlines and a highway adjacent to the property.

Two weeks earlier King’s Bay announced a 100% option on the Trump Island property in Newfoundland, where a shipment of high-grade copper-cobalt material was reportedly mined in 1863. In early February the company picked up three Quebec properties, all of which had historic, non-43-101 sampling results showing cobalt.

King’s Bay closed a $938,752 private placement in January.

See an infographic: Cobalt—A precarious supply chain.

Battery infographic series Part 5: The future of battery technology

February 23rd, 2017

by Jeff Desjardins | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | February 23, 2017

The Battery Series presents five infographics exploring what investors need to know about modern battery technology, including raw material supply, demand and future applications.

The future of battery technology

This is the last instalment of the Battery Series. For a recap of what has been covered so far, see the evolution of battery technology, the energy problem in context, the reasons behind the surge in lithium-ion demand and the critical materials needed to make lithium-ion batteries.

There’s no doubt that the lithium-ion battery has been an important catalyst for the green revolution, but there is still much work to be done for a full switch to renewable energy.

The battery technology of the future could:

  • Make electric cars a no-brainer choice for any driver

  • Make grid-scale energy storage solutions cheap and efficient

  • Make a full switch to renewable energy more feasible

Right now, scientists see many upcoming battery innovations that promise to do this. However, the road to commercialization is long, arduous and filled with many unexpected obstacles.

The near-term: Improving the Li-ion

For the foreseeable future, the improvement of battery technology relies on modifications being made to already-existing lithium-ion technology. In fact, experts estimate that lithium-ions will continue to increase capacity by 6% to 7% annually for a number of years.

Here’s what’s driving those advances:

Efficient manufacturing

Tesla has already made significant advances in battery design and production through its Gigafactory:

  • Better engineering and manufacturing processes

  • Wider and longer cell design allows more materials packaged into each cell

  • New battery cooling system fits more cells into battery pack

Better cathodes

Most of the recent advances in lithium-ion energy density have come from manipulating the relative quantities of cobalt, aluminum, manganese and nickel in the cathodes. By 2020, 75% of batteries are expected to contain cobalt in some capacity.

For scientists, it’s about finding the materials and crystal structures that can store the maximum amount of ions. The next generation of cathodes may be born from lithium-rich layered oxide materials (LLOs) or similar approaches, such as the nickel-rich variety.

Better anodes

While most lithium-ion progress to date has come from cathode tinkering, the biggest advances might happen in the anode.

Current graphite anodes can only store one lithium atom for every six carbon atoms—but silicon anodes could store 4.4 lithium atoms for every one silicon atom. That’s a theoretical tenfold increase in capacity!

However, the problem with this is well documented. When silicon houses these lithium-ions, it ends up bloating in size up to 400%. This volume change can cause irreversible damage to the anode, making the battery unusable.

To get around this, scientists are looking at a few different solutions.

1. Encasing silicon in a graphene “cage” to prevent cracking after expansion.

2. Using silicon nanowires, which can better handle the volume change.

3. Adding silicon in tiny amounts using existing manufacturing processes—Tesla is rumoured to be doing this already.

Solid-state lithium-ion

Lastly, a final improvement that is being worked on for the lithium-ion battery is to use a solid-state setup, rather than having liquid electrolytes enabling the ion transfer. This design could increase energy density in the future, but it still has some problems to resolve first, such as ions moving too slowly through the solid electrolyte.

The long term: Beyond the lithium-ion

Here are some new innovations in the pipeline that could help enable the future of battery technology:

Lithium-air

Anode: Lithium

Cathode: Porous carbon (oxygen)

Promise: 10 times greater energy density than Li-ion

Problems: Air is not pure enough and would need to be filtered. Lithium and oxygen form peroxide films that produce a barrier, ultimately killing storage capacity. Cycle life is only 50 cycles in lab tests

Variations: Scientists also trying aluminum-air and sodium-air batteries

Lithium-sulphur

Anode: Lithium

Cathode: Sulphur, carbon

Promise: Lighter, cheaper and more powerful than Li-ion

Problems: Volume expansion up to 80%, causing mechanical stress. Unwanted reactions with electrolytes. Poor conductivity and poor stability at higher temperatures

Variations: Many different variations exist, including using graphite/graphene, and silicon in the chemistry

Vanadium flow batteries

Catholyte: Vanadium

Anolyte: Vanadium

Promise: Using vanadium ions in different oxidation states to store chemical potential energy at scale. Can be expanded simply by using larger electrolyte tanks

Problems: Poor energy-to-volume ratio. Very heavy, must be used in stationary applications

Variations: Scientists are experimenting with other flow battery chemistries as well, such as zinc-bromine

Battery series conclusion

While the future of battery technology is very exciting, for the near and medium terms scientists are mainly focused on improving the already-commercialized lithium-ion.

What does the battery market look like 15 to 20 years from now? It’s ultimately hard to say. However, it’s likely that some of the above new technologies will help in leading the charge to a 100% renewable future.

Thanks for taking a look at the Battery Series.

See Part 1, Part 2, Part 3 and Part 4.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

As cobalt prices soar, King’s Bay expands prospects with Newfoundland acquisition

February 16th, 2017

by Greg Klein | February 16, 2017

A name and a commodity that are both objects of feverish attention seem to meet up in Newfoundland, where King’s Bay Gold TSXV:KBG has acquired the Trump Island copper-cobalt property. A 100% option announced February 16 expands the company’s cobalt prospects in Newfoundland, Labrador and Quebec.

Back in 1863 a Cornish miner sunk a six-metre shaft to follow a zone of massive chalcopyrite. He reportedly sent a shipment of high-grade copper-cobalt ore to Wales.

King’s Bay expands cobalt prospects with Newfoundland acquisition

Grab samples collected nearby in 1999 brought historic, non-43-101 results up to 3.8% copper, 0.3% cobalt, 2.9 g/t gold and 10.9 g/t silver.

The initial King’s Bay agenda would call for additional sampling, along with mapping and a local-scale electromagnetic survey on the 200-hectare property. Successful results could bring a summer drill campaign.

Subject to approvals, King’s Bay gets Trump Island for 200,000 shares at a deemed value of $0.195 and a 2% NSR.

The boat-accessible property sits seven kilometres south of Twillingate, a town immortalized in Newfoundland’s unofficial national anthem.

In Labrador, meanwhile, King’s Bay has airborne EM planned for its Lynx Lake copper-cobalt project, where grab samples have shown non-43-101 results up to 1.39% copper, 0.94% cobalt and 0.21% nickel, as well as chromium, molybdenum and vanadium values. Last month the company expanded Lynx Lake from about 2,000 hectares to approximately 24,000 hectares.

Earlier this month King’s Bay picked up three cobalt projects in Quebec. The company closed a $938,752 private placement in January.

The acquisitions come as cobalt prices continue their meteoric rise, hitting six-year highs up to $20 a pound, reported MetalBulletin.com. That represents an approximately 50% increase since September, according to Reuters. Stating that many traders are hoarding the metal, Reuters predicted a supply deficit this year “exacerbated by an insecure supply chain. Almost 60% of the world’s cobalt lies in politically risky Democratic Republic of Congo.”

See an infographic about cobalt.

King’s Bay Gold acquires three Quebec cobalt projects

February 6th, 2017

by Greg Klein | February 6, 2017

A metal facing rising prices and supply-side risk, cobalt has drawn King’s Bay Gold TSXV:KBG to three new properties in Quebec. Previous work has shown cobalt on each acquisition.

King’s Bay Gold acquires three Quebec cobalt projects

Northeast of the Hudson Bay coast, the 875-hectare Ninuk Lake project underwent surface sampling, mapping and electromagnetics by Falconbridge in 2001. Samples from massive sulphides in outcrop found historic, non-43-101 results up to 2.6% nickel, 1.8% copper and 0.27% cobalt. Falconbridge neglected to follow up due to other discoveries that year, King’s Bay stated.

A northwestern Quebec property, the 418-hectare Broadback River project revealed several large conductors through airborne surveys in 1985. Sampling by Falconbridge from 1999 to 2000 showed historic, non-43-101 results up to 0.7% nickel, 0.3% copper and 0.09% cobalt. Drilling tested the property’s northwestern area but not the southeastern conductors.

South of Quebec City, the 179-hectare Roberge project has undergone soil sampling with historic, non-43-101 results up to 1.06% cobalt.

Now compiling data from the properties, King’s Bay plans a spring program of mapping and sampling to confirm the historic results.

Last month the company closed its acquisition of the 24,000-hectare Lynx Lake copper-cobalt project in south-central Labrador, which has airborne EM planned. Grab samples from the property’s east side brought non-43-101 results up to 1.39% copper, 0.94% cobalt, 0.21% nickel and 6.5 g/t silver. Grab samples on the west side showed non-43-101 results up to 1.03% copper, 0.566% cobalt, 0.1% nickel, 5 g/t silver, 0.36% chromium, 0.39% molybdenum and 0.23% vanadium.

King’s Bay closed a $938,752 private placement in January.

See an infographic about cobalt.

Updated: Financing, permitting, 12-fold expansion bring King’s Bay closer to Labrador copper-cobalt exploration

January 17th, 2017

by Greg Klein | January 15, 2017

Update: On January 17, King’s Bay announced the expansion of its Lynx Lake property from about 2,000 hectares to approximately 24,000 hectares “to adequately cover the geological structures and geophysical signatures of interest.”

 

With a provincial permit in hand and a $938,752 private placement that closed earlier this month, King’s Bay Gold TSXV:KBG readies for airborne EM over its Lynx Lake copper-cobalt project in south-central Labrador. The survey will precede a proposed first-ever drill program for the property.

Financing, permitting bring King’s Bay closer to Labrador copper-cobalt exploration

Previous work began after construction of the Trans-Labrador Highway in 2008, which unlocked some of the region’s geology. Grab samples from a quarry on the property’s east side showed non-43-101 results up to 1.39% copper, 0.94% cobalt, 0.21% nickel and 6.5 g/t silver. Other non-43-101 grab sample results from a west-side quarry ranged up to 1.03% copper, 0.566% cobalt, 0.1% nickel, 5 g/t silver, 0.36% chromium, 0.39% molybdenum and 0.23% vanadium.

Preliminary evidence of strong conductors in the area came from the province’s regional low-res magnetic surveys and a hand-held EM-16 device.

With highway and powerlines running adjacent to the property, Lynx Lake can be reached by a 1.5-hour drive from the town of Happy Valley-Goose Bay.

Cobalt, one of the energy metals essential to battery manufacture, presents especially troubling supply concerns due to the instability and human rights infractions of the metal’s largest producer, the Democratic Republic of Congo. See an infographic about cobalt’s precarious supply chain.

King’s Bay Gold to acquire never-drilled copper-cobalt property in Labrador

October 28th, 2016

by Greg Klein | October 28, 2016

An intriguing chance find has King’s Bay Gold TSXV:KBG hoping the Trans-Labrador Highway will be a road to discovery. That’s the story behind the company’s October 27 announcement of a definitive agreement to acquire the Lynx Lake copper-cobalt property in south-central Labrador.

King’s Bay Gold to acquire never-drilled copper-cobalt property in Labrador

Powerlines and the Trans-Labrador Highway
run adjacent to the Lynx Lake copper-cobalt property.

As Newfoundland was building the highway in 2008, a provincial contractor with prospecting experience noticed evidence of disseminated and massive sulphides, King’s Bay geologist/director Nick Rodway explains. Some geological sleuthing eventually drew the contractor to the property’s east side, where a quarry had been blasted for aggregate.

Grab samples assayed the following year showed non-43-101 results up to 1.39% copper, 0.94% cobalt, 0.21% nickel and 6.5 g/t silver. Regional low-res magnetic surveys undertaken by the province and preliminary work in 2014 with a hand-held EM-16 device suggest strong conductors underlying the area.

Grab samples taken on the property’s west side in 2015 brought non-43-101 results up to 1.03% copper, 0.566% cobalt, 0.1% nickel, 5 g/t silver, 0.36% chromium, 0.39% molybdenum and 0.23% vanadium.

With a team returning to Lynx Lake next week, King’s Bay intends to conduct a sampling program to bring 43-101 results, along with further EM-16 surveys. Should all go to plan, airborne geophysics could follow this winter.

Open to year-round work, highway-accessible and with adjacent powerlines, the 20-square-kilometre property sits about 100 kilometres southeast of the town of Happy Valley-Goose Bay.

Subject to approvals, the acquisition costs King’s Bay $100,000 over three years and 900,000 shares over two years. On October 27 the company also announced a private placement of up to $1 million.

The news comes amid growing concerns over future cobalt supply. Nearly 60% of global production comes from the Democratic Republic of Congo, a country rife with political instability and conflict mining.

At the same time increased demand comes from “the energy storage revolution,” reports Benchmark Mineral Intelligence. Its data shows “2015 total global supply at 100,000 tpa, of this the battery market consumed 48,000 tpa.

“With a lithium-ion battery production surge well underway—and Benchmark recently revising its megafactories tracker to now 14 that are under construction ranging from three- to 35-GWh capacity—lithium-ion battery demand for cobalt is set to exceed 100,000 tpa by 2020.”

A battery-powered revolution

January 21st, 2015

VRIC 2015 speakers look at emerging needs in energy and commodities

by Greg Klein

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Battery megafactories are on their way, heralding a potential “battery revolution,” says Simon Moores. Although they’re already ubiquitous, much more widespread than only a decade ago, he says batteries remain in a relatively “young stage of development.” Electric vehicles and large-scale storage for utilities could bring on a new phase demanding much more of the minerals and metals they require.

VRIC 2015 speakers look at emerging needs in energy and commodities

Speaking at this year’s Vancouver Resource Investment Conference, Moores dated the first commercial battery-powered watch to 1969. By the late 1990s, battery-powered tools, cellphones and mp3 players became common. By the mid-2000s laptops attained widespread use, followed by the “2007 smartphone revolution powered by Apple.” Tablets and other devices gained popularity. “It’s only now that we’ve evolved into a truly mobile world. You can just tell by the amount of mobile devices you have in your pocket now compared to 10 years ago,” the Benchmark Mineral Intelligence analyst pointed out.

But we’re now entering a new phase of fully electric vehicles—not hybrids—and electricity storage for utilities, he said.

Unlike the earlier mercury or lead-acid batteries, the new wave of batteries uses “niche minerals and metals, they’re not really commodities but specially processed and created products” using graphite, lithium and cobalt, among other minerals. Large-scale storage calls for lithium-ion or vanadium flow batteries.

The impending revolution wouldn’t be the first. The Apple iPhone triggered the “hand-held revolution” in 2007, not just outselling competitors but creating enormous additional demand. Its predecessor, the Nokia N70, sold a million handsets in a year, making it the best-selling smartphone of the time, Moores said. Less than two years later the iPhone emerged, selling a million handsets in 72 days. Last September the iPhone 6 sold 10 million in 72 hours.

Obviously that calls for more batteries, but there’s an additional factor that’s often missed, Moores emphasized. Notwithstanding miniaturization of electronics, batteries are getting bigger. In 2012 the iPhone 5 used roughly nine grams of graphite, he said. Two years later its successor took up to 19 grams. Similar increases apply to lithium and cobalt.

VRIC 2015 speakers look at emerging needs in energy and commodities

Simon Moores foresees a battery revolution brought about by
electronics, EVs and utility storage.

As for electric vehicles, the Nissan Leaf remains the top seller. But Tesla Motors’ approach “could be the tipping point,” Moores thinks. A key innovation was to build a car around the battery, “basically about the size of the chassis of the car” and more than twice the size of Leaf’s battery.

Other manufacturers had taken existing designs, stuck a battery in it and “then they complained the car didn’t go far enough.”

Now Tesla plans a $5-billion project to build the world’s biggest battery plant in Nevada. “They want to take what the world produced in 2013 and double that capacity in Nevada. The idea is lower-cost batteries, lower-cost cars, mass-scale commercialization of the EV.”

Korean manufacturer LG Chem has started building a $500-million battery plant in China. “We think that’s about a seven-gigawatt-hour plant.”

A manufacturer of iPhones for Apple, Foxconn has another battery factory planned for China that Moores thinks will produce about 15 GWh. Like Tesla, Foxconn’s new to the battery-building business.

Tesla’s factory, which the company hopes to see operating in 2017, would have a 35-GWh capacity. “The biggest plant today is about two gigawatt-hours.”

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