Monday 22nd October 2018

Resource Clips


Posts tagged ‘silver’

Golden Dawn Minerals reports high gold-copper grades in B.C., prepares for trial mining

June 11th, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 11, 2018

Channel sample results from the face of previous underground workings auger well for plans to re-start southern British Columbia’s Lexington mine, Golden Dawn Minerals TSXV:GOM stated June 11. The company released several dozen assays from a campaign that’s collected 339 samples so far. Four of the best composite results showed:

  • 30.18 g/t gold and 4.93% copper (37.57 g/t gold-equivalent) over 1.8 metres

  • 26.67 g/t gold and 1.77% copper (29.33 g/t gold-equivalent) over 2.3 metres

  • 13.41 g/t gold and 2.08% copper (16.54 g/t gold-equivalent) over 3.9 metres

  • 17.04 g/t gold and 3.42% copper (22.16 g/t gold-equivalent) over 2.6 metres
Golden Dawn Minerals reports high gold-copper grades in B.C. while preparing for trial mining

Underground refurbishment, equipment maintenance,
engineering studies and permitting bring the Lexington mine
closer to renewed operations.

The grades bolster confidence in the 2016 resource and would help reduce dilution of mill feed during trial mining, anticipated to begin later this year, the company stated. Having produced a PEA for its Greenwood properties last year, Golden Dawn hopes to re-start some of the former mines without de-risking at the feasibility level. The 15,400-hectare portfolio includes 31 historic mines. Processing would take place at the company’s nearby Greenwood mill, a 212-tpd facility that’s expandable to 400 tpd.

Using a base case cutoff of 3.5 g/t gold-equivalent, Lexington’s resource shows:

  • measured: 58,000 tonnes averaging 6.98 g/t gold and 1.1% copper (8.63 g/t gold-equivalent) for 16,100 gold-equivalent ounces

  • indicated: 314,000 tonnes averaging 6.38 g/t gold and 1.04% copper (7.94 g/t gold-equivalent) for 80,200 gold-equivalent ounces

  • inferred: 12,000 tonnes averaging 4.42 g/t gold and 1.03% copper (5.96 g/t gold-equivalent) for 2,300 gold-equivalent ounces

Under a previous operator between April and December 2008, the mine produced 5,486 ounces of gold, 3,247 ounces of silver and 860,259 pounds of copper.

Recent work suggests possible extensions to the northwest of two potential parallel mineralized zones near Lexington’s Main zone. Golden Dawn also sees a “one-kilometre-long trend of favourable host rocks” stretching from Lexington into the former Lone Star mine just across the border in Washington state. “The favourable stratigraphy also extends over three kilometres to the northwest through the historic Lexington, Mable and Number 7 mines, where minimal past exploration drilling was done,” the company stated. Previous sampling shows further potential around the nearby City of Paris former mine, Golden Dawn added.

The company continues its extensive work on Lexington’s mine infrastructure, equipment, engineering studies and permitting.

Earlier this month Golden Dawn closed a $734,700 first tranche of a private placement offered up to $5.4 million. Last month the company issued shares to repay $160,339 in debt to Lind Asset Management.

Read more about Golden Dawn Minerals.

Fabled Klondike gateway sold to cruise ship line for US$290 million

June 7th, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 7, 2018

It’s been a local fixture for decades but a company that panders to pampered argonauts will officially take over the Alaska panhandle port of Skagway. This of course was the landing point for an earlier, much hardier breed nicknamed after Jason and his buddies of Golden Fleece fame. The Klondike argonauts also sailed storm-tossed seas but, while passing through this little town seeking gold, often got fleeced themselves.

Fabled Klondike gateway sold to cruise ship line for US$290 million

From frontier hellhole to tourist mecca,
Skagway trades on its Klondike connection.
(Photo: Skagway Convention and Visitors Bureau)

Such was the case when frontier bad guy Soapy Smith and his gang ran Skagway like a criminal fiefdom. They succeeded for a while, but it was right on the docks in 1898 that Smith and vigilante Frank Reid shot and killed each other. Their mortal remains rest in a graveyard on the edge of town.

Skagway was one of two main ports of arrival for the Klondike, along with Dyea, about five kilometres northwest. The latter town led to the Chilkoot Trail, where desperate hopefuls would make something like 50 trips of up to six hours each climbing to a North West Mounted Police checkpoint to carry supplies sufficient to survive a Yukon winter.

The rival route led to the White Pass, “a hellish place even for those inured to hardship and disappointment by having survived the different hell that was Skagway,” wrote Douglas Fetherling in The Gold Crusades. Railway construction began a few months before Smith’s death, with the line reaching Whitehorse in 1900. There, the White Pass and Yukon Route transferred its goods and passengers onto riverboats towards Dawson City.

In the 1950s the WP&YR became a world innovator by introducing the concept of containerized freight handling, loading the cargo from the world’s first container ship to rail at Skagway and then truck at Whitehorse. The distinctive containers can still be seen around Skagway, serving various purposes such as garden sheds.

The WP&YR’s fortunes rose and fell with those of the mining industry, recounted Marina McCready in Gateway to Gold. Competition arrived in 1978 from a new Whitehorse-to-Skagway highway. A mining slump shut down the service in 1982, but it reopened in 1988 to offer summer sightseeing excursions. They still run 110 kilometres between the little downtown and Carcross, Yukon, passing through a corner of northwestern British Columbia.

Today “dat tourist trap Skagway,” as a character in Ken Kesey’s Sailor Song called it, features numerous restored turn-of-the-century buildings, some of them transplanted from Dyea. Part of the town comprises the Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park, which in 1998 became an international site managed by both the U.S. and Canada.

From May to September the narrow docks host cruise ships magnificent for their stature but still dwarfed by mountains rising suddenly to the north and south.

On June 6 TWC Enterprises TSX:TWC announced an agreement to sell the WP&YR’s “complete rail, port and merchandise operations” to Carnival Corporation & plc for US$290 million. Debt estimated between $70 million and $80 million will be deducted from the price. TWC may take up to $84 million of the proceeds in Carnival shares. Expected to close by July 31, the transaction would put three docks and four cruise ship berths under a single cruise ship line.

The port also ships concentrate from Yukon’s only hardrock mining operation, the Minto copper-gold-silver mine held by Capstone Mining TSX:CS but subject to a purchase agreement with Pembridge Resources plc. Proponents of some would-be mines in B.C.’s Golden Triangle contemplate shipment through Skagway.

Jobs, revenues, share prices benefit as higher commodity prices boost B.C. mining

May 11th, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 11, 2018

Jobs, revenues, share prices benefit as higher commodity prices boost B.C. mining

A 75%/25% partnership of Copper Mountain Mining TSX:CMMC and Mitsubishi
Materials brought a former mine back into production, employing 430 workers.

 

The bull’s still not back but higher commodity prices continue to sustain a mood of cautious optimism among British Columbia miners, PricewaterhouseCoopers assures us. Its 50th annual report on B.C. mining sketched a broad picture of the province’s industry by surveying 13 companies, focusing on 15 operating mines, a smelter and seven projects in the exploration, permitting or environmental review stage.

Among survey participants, gross revenue hit $11.7 billion in 2017, a 35% jump from the previous year and reflecting an upward trend in the mining cycle. (Except for commodity prices, all figures are given in Canadian dollars.) Governments scooped up $859 million in total mining revenues from those companies last year, compared with $650 million in 2016.

Shareholders fared especially well, reaping 31.1% pre-tax gains from the companies involved, compared with 13.5% in 2016 and 6.3% in 2015. “This is the highest return we’ve seen in recent years and it has surpassed the historic high levels of 2012,” PwC stated.

Direct employment among the companies climbed to 10,196 jobs, compared with 9,329 in 2016 and 9,221 in 2015. PwC attributed most of the increase to Conuma Coal Resources’ two operating mines in the northeast.

Indeed, the participants’ metallurgical coal revenue rose to $5.2 billion from $3 billion in 2016 and $2 billion in 2015. Prices averaged $173 a tonne last year, up from $115 in 2016 and $101 in 2015. At a 50% increase over 2016, the steelmaking stuff struck the highest price increase of any commodity included in the report.

Revenue from copper concentrate came to nearly $1.9 billion, after $1.8 billion in 2016 and $2 billion in 2015. Average red metal prices rose 27% to $2.80 a pound, compared with $2.21 in 2016 and $2.50 in 2015.

Despite a slight decrease in shipments, a 38% price increase lifted participants’ zinc revenue to $1.2 billion, compared with $877 million in 2016 and $818 million the previous year. Prices swelled to an average $1.31 a pound, compared with $0.95 in 2016 and $0.87 in 2015.

Participants’ gold revenues rose to $829 million from $651 million in 2016 and $519 million in 2015. Although B.C. produces the yellow metal largely as a copper byproduct, the 2017 increase largely came from Pretium Resources’ (TSX:PVG) Brucejack mine, which began commercial production that year. Average prices underwhelmed, however, at $1,259 an ounce, although slightly less depressed than the $1,248 in 2016 and $1,160 in 2015.

Silver revenues slipped to $509 million from $589 million the previous year and $535 million in 2015. Average prices wallowed around $17.08 an ounce, compared with $17.11 in 2016, up from $15.71 in 2015. B.C. mines generally garner silver as a byproduct of metals like copper, gold, lead and zinc.

As for lead, it dropped to $224 million in revenues from $255 million the previous year, despite prices rising to $1.05 a pound from $0.85 in 2016.

Molybdenum more than doubled to $104 million from $45 million in 2016 and $51 million in 2015, thanks to higher volumes and prices, which reached $7.07 a pound from $6.37 in 2016.

[The return on shares for participating companies] is the highest return we’ve seen in recent years and it has surpassed the historic high levels of 2012.

Saying “the worst may be over,” PwC stated: “Many in the industry haven’t felt this positive since it was recovering from the fallout of the 2008-09 global financial crisis. There’s cautious optimism the industry will continue to recover.”

But a warning came from an otherwise upbeat Bryan Cox, president of the Mining Association of B.C.: “Mining projects are capital-intensive, multi-year commitments, from exploration to mine development and operation, necessitating clarity, consistency and co-ordination from governments for investors to deploy capital. If any one of those three Cs is missing, then capital investment is at risk.”

This marks PwC’s 50th such report since 1967, when “Lester B. Pearson was Canada’s prime minister, W.A.C. Bennett was the premier of British Columbia and [get this!] the Toronto Maple Leafs won the Stanley Cup. As for mining, in 1967 the price of gold was about $35 per ounce, copper was trading around $0.50 per pound and the Britannia mine, now a museum, was still producing copper, gold, silver and other metals and minerals.”

Download 50 years on… The mining industry in British Columbia 2017.

Who’s doing what, and why?

May 10th, 2018

Four banks manipulate six commodities to manage other markets, says Ed Steer

by Greg Klein

Probably the most facile way to dismiss a conspiracy theorist is to label the person “a conspiracy theorist.” Conventional thinking gives the term negative connotations, even though history and current events have an inconvenient tendency to reveal conspiracies in action. Ed Steer’s interest in bullion manipulation started with the Hunt brothers’ 1970s silver conspiracy. Having spent decades watching the machinations of others, the newsletter writer and Gold Anti-Trust Action Committee board member adamantly declares that “there are no markets, just interventions.”

Four banks manipulate six commodities to manage other markets, says Ed Steer

Ed Steer speaks at the International Mining
Investment Conference, held in
Vancouver on May 15 and 16.

Drawing on the work of GATA and analyst Ted Butler, Steer believes precious metals “have been managed actively” in the COMEX futures market since 1973. Price suppression supports “the paper game they’re playing in the stock and bond markets,” a game that’s continued since the U.S. dropped the gold standard in 1971, he argues.

“We’ve had a complete blow-up of paper assets because of unlimited money printing. They don’t want that showing up in the commodities market because the moment that it does, all the paper’s going to rush out of Wall Street, the bond market, the Dow and every other index, and into gold and silver in particular and commodities in general. And that’s not what they want to happen.”

If those two metals merit suppression, so do platinum and palladium. “You couldn’t have a $3,000 or $4,000 platinum price while gold’s sitting at $1,200,” he states. “People would start asking questions.”

Not just bullion but, more recently, copper and crude too. “If you can control the prices of those six, you can pretty well control the prices of other commodities, whether they’re wheat, oats, sugar, lumber or whatever. There will be circumstances of course when supply-demand factors in some commodities will cause a run-up in prices. But overall, they keep those six commodities under price control and, when they do that, they can control everything else.”

Who are they? He attributes special prominence to JPMorgan Chase. “They’re the biggest players in all four precious metals, and they’re also in the crude oil market to a certain extent. It’s JPMorgan Chase, HSBC USA, Scotiabank here in Canada, and most likely Citigroup, but JPMorgan is by far the ringleader. There may be some investment houses involved as well like Morgan Stanley and I think Goldman Sachs, which is now a bank. So it’s the Wall Street paperhangers, four or five of them versus everybody else. There’s also lots of foreign banks involved, maybe up to 30, but their positions are very, very minor compared to the big traders that control almost 50% of the COMEX futures market in gold right now.

Four banks manipulate six commodities to manage other markets, says Ed Steer

“This is total collusion. They all buy at the same time, they all sell at the same time…. There’s no free market in any of this.”

Now, with the gold-silver ratio sometimes surpassing 80 to one, Steer blames this extraordinary divergence on the same tactics.

“JPMorgan has taken silver down from $49 in 2011 all the way to $16 or $17, and they’ve held it there. If the gold-silver ratio were even close to normal it would be around 25 or 30 to one. Of course that would be double or triple the silver price that we have today, and even that doesn’t fully take into account supply and demand. As far as I’m concerned the silver price should be well over $100 an ounce by now and the ratio should be about 20 to one.”

Oil presents another example. “It’s up over 30% since the middle of December. The gold price has done basically nothing. That’s not what normally happens. When oil prices rise, it’s a sign that commodity prices will rise and of course gold and silver are normally the leading indicators. The metals aren’t being allowed to function as leading indicators because they’re trying to get the oil price up without affecting gold and silver prices—and they’ve done an awesome job of that.”

It doesn’t make any difference how many bombs fall on Syria, Iraq or Iran, or what the supply-demand situation is. It all depends on what’s happening in the COMEX futures market.

External forces play little or no role, he maintains. “It doesn’t make any difference how many bombs fall on Syria, Iraq or Iran, or what the supply-demand situation is. It all depends on what’s happening in the COMEX futures market.”

He does concede, however, “If things got really extreme, if downtown Tehran disappeared under a mushroom cloud, that would probably move the markets.”

But sometime in the foreseeable future, those in control will have to let bullion rise, he adds. “It’s very hard to defend this price right now. Demand is exceeding supply, certainly in gold. They’re going to have to increase the prices in both gold and silver, but whether they’ll allow prices to run free remains to be seen. They might just allow gold to rally $300 or $400 or so, and up to $50 in silver, and hold the prices at that new level. But they’re going to have to let it go sooner or later and I think the day is coming sooner.”

That would mean the two metals do offer a safe haven after all. “I think this COMEX futures paper game is going to end pretty soon and those who were already positioned are going to reap substantial rewards. It’s better to be a year or two early rather than five minutes or two days late.”

Ed Steer speaks at the International Mining Investment Conference, held in Vancouver from May 15 to 16. For a 25% admission discount click here and enter the code RESOURCECLIPS.

Read about conference speakers Jayant Bhandari and Simon Moores.

Pistol Bay drills 5.15% zinc-equivalent over 12.85 metres at NW Ontario’s Confederation Lake

May 3rd, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 3, 2018

With three holes totalling 1,525 metres now complete out of a 3,500-metre winter-spring campaign, Pistol Bay Mining TSXV:PST released the first assay on May 2. The initial holes targeted the Arrow zone, part of the 100%-optioned, 15,000-hectare Confederation Lake project in northwestern Ontario.

Sunk on Arrow’s main sulphide zone, hole DDH GL18-02 gave up Russian doll interval-within-interval assays as follows:

Pistol Bay drills 5.15% zinc-equivalent over 12.85 metres at NW Ontario’s Confederation Lake

Pistol Bay hopes to upgrade last year’s
resource estimate for the project’s Arrow zone.

  • 3.07% zinc, 0.42% copper, 0.12% lead, 22.2 g/t silver and 0.59 g/t gold for 5.15% zinc-equivalent over 12.85 metres, starting at 422.95 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 3.82% zinc, 0.5% copper, 0.15% lead, 27.3 g/t silver and 0.71 g/t gold for 6.33% zinc-equivalent over 9.8 metres)
  • (which includes 4.83% zinc, 0.56% copper, 0.15% lead, 26.4 g/t silver and 0.45 g/t gold for 7.13% zinc-equivalent over 7.3 metres)
  • (which includes 8.88% zinc, 0.92% copper, 0.38% lead, 44.3 g/t silver and 0.38 g/t gold for 12.3% zinc-equivalent over 2 metres)
  • (which includes 22% zinc, 0.28% copper, 0.77% lead, 74.9 g/t silver and 0.77 g/t gold for 24.8% zinc-equivalent over 0.6 metres)

Overlapping some of these intervals was a three-metre section described as “conspicuous gold enrichment towards the top of the main sulphide zone”:

  • 0.83% zinc, 0.33% copper, 0.17% lead, 40.4 g/t silver and 1.65 g/t gold for 4.41% zinc-equivalent over 3 metres, starting at 426 metres

A 43-101 resource released last year for Arrow used a base case 3% zinc-equivalent cutoff for an inferred category showing:

  • 2.1 million tonnes averaging 5.78% zinc, 0.72% copper,19.5 g/t silver and 0.6 g/t gold, for a zinc-equivalent grade of 8.42%

Contained amounts come to:

  • 274 million pounds zinc, 34.3 million pounds copper, 1.33 million ounces silver and 41,000 ounces gold

But recent drilling suggests Arrow might consist of “two separate zones arranged en echelon or that the southwestern part is displaced from the northeastern part by a fault,” Pistol Bay stated.

Still to come are assays for the two remaining holes.

From Arrow, the rig moves about eight kilometres west to sink three more holes on the property’s Fredart A zone, also known as Copperlode A. Work dating to the 1960s resulted in two conflicting historic, non-43-101 estimates of 386,000 tonnes averaging 1.56% copper and 33.6 g/t silver, or 219,500 tonnes averaging 1.95% copper and 41.8 g/t silver.

The drill program follows last year’s VTEM-Plus survey, the area’s first exposure to state-of-the-art regional geophysics.

Silver supply deficit fails to boost price, Silver Institute study finds

April 16th, 2018

by Greg Klein | April 16, 2018

Notwithstanding a decline in production, silver fell slightly in price and lost further ground to gold last year, according to the World Silver Survey 2018. Prepared by Thomson Reuters for the Silver Institute, the 28th annual study reported total supply of 991.6 million ounces in 2017, compared with physical demand of 1,017.6 million ounces. The 26-million-ounce deficit grew to 35.2 million ounces when ETP and exchange inventory increases were factored in.

Silver supply deficit fails to boost price, Silver Institute study finds

But at $17.05, the average price represented a 0.5% year-on-year drop. The metal ended the year at $16.87, having traded between $15.22 and $18.56 during 2017.

While recycling provided most of the remaining supply, the year’s global mine production came to 852.1 million ounces. That represented a 4.1% decline attributed largely to “supply disruptions in the Americas,” most notably Guatemala, where Tahoe Resources TSX:THO had its Escobal mining licence suspended, and the U.S., where a strike beginning in March 2017 forced Hecla Mining NYSE:HL to slash production at its Lucky Friday mine. Australia and Argentina also showed considerable declines.

Canada, ranking 14th for silver production, extracted 12.7 million ounces last year, compared with 13 million in 2016.

Meanwhile, gold has been leaving silver behind. Year-end prices for 2016 showed the yellow stuff selling for 71.4 times the price of its poorer cousin. The 2017 gold:silver ratio averaged 73.9:1, hitting 77:1 by year-end, “a high level that perhaps suggests that the market is trying to tell us something,” Thomson Reuters stated. “We suspect the high gold:silver ratio indicated that the market had been expecting another major crisis could be looming, or at the least that it was about time for equities correction, and therefore investors had been accumulating physical gold in the market.”

Another precious metal also paled in comparison with gold, which ended 2017 at an historical high of 1.4 times the price of platinum.

But investors looking at silver and platinum’s catch-up potential should consider “gold’s role as a safe haven and that some smart money has been hedging against geopolitical risks and potential correction in equities,” the study added.

New in numismatics: Ovoid-shaped black light coin commemorates Manitoba UFO sighting

April 4th, 2018

by Greg Klein | April 4, 2018

The story was weird enough to elicit disbelief, possibly all the more because the source was a prospector. But something very odd must have caused the burns Stefan Michalak suffered in the Manitoba woods one day in 1967. His explanation was a UFO. Now the Royal Canadian Mint has commemorated the Falcon Lake Incident with a rather weird item of its own—an unevenly elliptical glow-in-the-dark $20 one-ounce silver coin.

New in numismatics Ovoid-shaped black light coin commemorates Manitoba UFO sighting

For dramatic effect, as the Mint explains, “photo-luminescent outlines of the UFO, its beam-like blast and the silhouette of an injured Michalak, glow in the dark under black light. This phenomenal keepsake, and many other new arrivals, are now available for purchase.” A small black light flashlight’s included.

But, as Michalak’s son emphasized to the CBC last year, Stefan never claimed to have seen anything from outer space. He simply described what he did see. He even speculated that it might have been a secret U.S. military vessel. UFO researcher Chris Rutkowski called it “possibly Canada’s best-documented UFO case.”

Just 4,000 copies of the coin have been minted. With a face value of $20, it costs only $129.95.

New in numismatics Ovoid-shaped black light coin commemorates Manitoba UFO sighting

(Images: Royal Canadian Mint)

Taking unusual contours to an even more unusual level, the Mint also released a set of two yin-yang-shaped pieces that fit together to form a one-ounce silver circle. Suggesting “harmony and balance among opposing forces,” yin and yang each have a $10 face value. But the set will cost you $164.95.

Among the more striking designs recently struck is “an ultra-high relief engraving” of the Kwakwaka’wakw Thunderbird image, likely to send chills down the spine of anyone not already shivering in the West Coast rainforest’s lingering winter. Another one-ounce silver coin, this one sells for $149.95.

Some imaginative February releases included a $250 gold coin embedded with 17 rubies and platinum plating to evoke the Queen’s Burmese Tiara. Limited to 175 copies, it costs $6,999.95 with three- or four-month payment plans available. February also saw the Mint’s first five-ounce curved or convex coin, the silver $50 Maple Leaves in Motion. It goes for $579.95 but 99% of the 2,000 coins have been sold.

Each of the collector’s items comes with a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Canada’s coin-casting Crown corporation credits itself as “one of the largest and most versatile mints in the world.”

Infographic: The five biggest market risks that billionaires hedge against

March 23rd, 2018

by Jeff Desjardins | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | March 23, 2018

If you’ve studied the history of markets, you know that sentiment can turn on a dime.

Whether it is an unexpected wake-up call like the collapse of Lehman Brothers, or simply the popping of a bubble that’s blown too big, the tides can shift in a matter of hours or days.

No one knows this better than the world’s most elite investors—and that’s why billionaires like Warren Buffett, Ray Dalio, Bill Gross, Paul Tudor Jones II and Carl Icahn take the necessary precautions available to protect themselves from these big and unexpected market swings.

Five risks that keep billionaires up at night

This infographic comes to us from Sprott Physical Bullion Trusts and it highlights some of the potential market risks that could move markets, as well as how these elite investors are hedging to protect their fortunes.

The five biggest market risks that billionaires hedge against

 

While these are all market risks that billionaires are concerned about, it’s worth mentioning that these kinds of events are almost impossible to predict or forecast.

Despite the unlikelihood of them occurring, they all have the potential to impact markets—and that’s why elite investors are always active in hedging their investments.

A note on net worth

Why are billionaires so concerned—after all, don’t they have lots of cash to protect themselves?

It’s worth noting that on a relative basis, billionaires often aren’t very liquid at all. In fact, most of their net worth is usually tied up in business interests or other investments, and the value of these assets fluctuates with the market.

That means a big market movement could wipe out millions or billions of dollars in the span of hours. For an extreme example of this, just look at Mark Zuckerberg, who saw his net worth plunge $6 billion in just one day in the wake of his company’s most recent privacy crisis.

The five big market risks

Here are the risks keeping the world’s most elite investors up at night:

1. The return of inflation
Have central banks mastered monetary policy or is there a chance that inflation could come back with a vengeance? After trending down for decades, billionaire Carl Icahn says that creeping inflation could lead to higher interest rates, which he thinks would be “difficult to deal with for the market.”

2. Record-high debt
The most recent number for global debt is $233 trillion, and about $63 trillion of that is central government debt.

Bill Gross, the Bond King, says that our system is dependent on leverage, and the critical values that affect this are debt levels, availability and the cost of leverage. He said in a recent interview, “When one or more of these factors deteriorates, the probability of the model’s success and stability go down.”

3. Bond market worries
Last year, 84% of investors said that the corporate bond market was overvalued—and 82% said that the government bond market was overvalued.

In a recent interview, hedge fund billionaire Paul Tudor Jones II predicted a price plunge, saying that “bonds are the most expensive they’ve ever been by virtually any metric. They’re overvalued and over-owned.”

4. Geopolitical black swans
Elite investors continue to worry about geopolitical surprises that could impact markets, such as a trade war with China. We looked at this broad topic in depth in our previous infographic on geopolitical black swans.

5. Overzealous central banks
Lastly, many world-class investors are also concerned about the unintended after-effects of massive central bank programs in recent years. With $13 trillion in total QE pumped into global markets since 2008, investors are worried about how much room central banks have left to manoeuvre in a situation where the central bank “tool kit” is needed.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

Pistol Bay Mining begins drilling its expanded zinc-copper-polymetallic Ontario VMS project

March 22nd, 2018

by Greg Klein | March 22, 2018

With about 3,500 metres planned, Pistol Bay Mining TSXV:PST has drilling now underway at northwestern Ontario’s VMS-rich Confederation Lake greenstone belt. Three holes of about 500 metres each will supply material from the project’s Arrow zone for preliminary metallurgical tests. From there the rig shifts roughly eight kilometres west to the Fredart zone, aka the Copperlode A zone.

Pistol Bay Mining resumes drilling at its expanded zinc-polymetallic Ontario VMS project

Last year the company released a 43-101 resource for Arrow that used a base case 3% zinc-equivalent cutoff for an inferred category showing:

  • 2.1 million tonnes averaging 5.78% zinc, 0.72% copper,19.5 g/t silver and 0.6 g/t gold, for a zinc-equivalent grade of 8.42%

Contained amounts come to:

  • 274 million pounds zinc, 34.3 million pounds copper, 1.33 million ounces silver and 41,000 ounces gold

Obviously overdue for renewed attention is Fredart. The zone has conflicting historic, non-43-101 estimates of 386,000 tonnes averaging 1.56% copper and 33.6 g/t silver, or 219,500 tonnes averaging 1.95% copper and 41.8 g/t silver.

A January option agreement expands Pistol Bay’s Confederation Lake package by 3,700 hectares, for a total of about 20,700 hectares. The new turf comprises part of last year’s VTEM-Plus survey, the area’s first state-of-the-art regional geophysics. Some of the available, non-43-101 past intercepts from the acquisition’s Wasp Lake trend include 2.96% zinc and 0.04% copper over 2.79 metres, as well as 1.12% zinc and 0.04% copper over 7.19 metres. The same trend showed a strong conductive response on the VTEM-Plus results, Pistol Bay reported.

Another positive geophysical response came from the acquisition’s Fly Lake zone, where historic, non-43-101 assays reached as high as 1.36% zinc and 0.17% copper over 11.5 metres, along with 1.51% zinc and 0.08% copper over 8.9 metres. The zone appears to remain open along strike and at depth, the company stated. Nine other geophysical anomalies, meanwhile, appear to lack previous drilling.

The January option follows 5,860 hectares of staking last September that covers multiple conductors and IP anomalies identified in the airborne survey, as well as parallel conductors or extensions of known conductors.

Last month the company announced an amended agreement with a Rio Tinto NYSE:RIO subsidiary which will increase its hold on the C4, C5 and C6 uranium properties in Saskatchewan from 75% to 100%. The deal will bring Pistol Bay $1 million.

In January the company also announced progress with its PB Blockchain subsidiary as it builds “a suite of blockchain products to address needs that are particular to the data management and security of mining/oil and gas companies.”

Read more about Pistol Bay Mining here and here.

Selected bulk sample hits 2.46% cobalt, 6,173 g/t silver for Canada Cobalt Works’ Ontario project

March 16th, 2018

by Greg Klein | March 16, 2018

High grades continue as Canada Cobalt Works TSXV:CCW conducts underground bulk sampling at the past-producing Castle mine in eastern Ontario. A pulp assay on a 35-kilogram sample released March 16 showed 2.46% cobalt, 1% nickel and 6,173 g/t or 198.5 ounces per tonne silver.

Selected bulk sample hits 2.46% cobalt, 6,173 g/t silver for Canada Cobalt Works’ Ontario project

Visible cobalt mineralization can be seen
in the former Castle mine’s first level.

A metallic screen fire assay on a 66-gram native silver sample not included in the previous assay brought “a head grade of 818,254 g/t (26,307 ounces per tonne),” Canada Cobalt stated. The samples were selective and not representative, the company emphasized.

Samples came from the historic mine’s first level, where rehab engineers have observed cobalt mineralization in the stopes, Canada Cobalt added. In operation off and on between 1917 and 1989, Castle’s underground workings extend through 11 levels totalling about 18 kilometres.

Last month the company reported two mini-bulk samples, with one assaying 2.47% cobalt, 23.4 g/t silver, 0.68% nickel and 1.83 g/t gold, and the other showing 0.91% cobalt and 460 g/t silver. That followed two mini-bulk samples of 3.124% and 1.036% cobalt released in December. The company also has assays pending from a 2,405-metre surface drill program conducted last summer.

As for the former Beaver mine in Ontario’s Cobalt camp 80 kilometres southeast of Castle, in December Canada Cobalt released three composite samples averaging 4.68% cobalt, 3.09% nickel and 46.9 g/t silver.

Canada Cobalt appointed Ron Molnar as an adviser on the company’s proprietary Re-2OX process for extracting cobalt and lithium from used Li-ion batteries. “Molnar has designed, built and operated over 60 pilot plant circuits extracting, separating and purifying a wide range of metallic elements from cobalt to rare earths,” the company stated.

Canada Cobalt also plans to build a 600-tpd gold processing facility to be financed by Granada Gold Mine TSXV:GGM, which holds a project near Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec. The two companies share overlapping management and directors.

Canada Cobalt closed a private placement of $1.03 million in January.