Wednesday 21st August 2019

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Posts tagged ‘lithium’

Infographic: How Benchmark Mineral Intelligence analyzes lithium prices

August 19th, 2019

Visual Capitalist created this sponsored content for Benchmark Mineral Intelligence.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | August 19, 2019

Benchmark Mineral Intelligence analyzes lithium prices

 

Different generations find different uses for raw materials, changing the value of these inputs over time.

Lithium is not a new discovery, but its applications are. Scientists first discovered lithium as an element in 1817, but it was not until the 1970s that studies into lithium-ion batteries began.

It was a British chemist working for Exxon who first proposed the idea of a lithium-ion battery. However, after some initial testing, Exxon abandoned the project.

Nonetheless, lithium-ion battery technology has evolved into regular use through cellphones and electric vehicles. It offers an alternative to fossil fuels that global industry can run on.

Just as the world currently watches the price of oil to determine the trade winds, lithium could become just as important for the worldwide movement for clean energy.

Pricing the new oil

Traditionally, buyers and sellers have priced lithium through long-term contracts. However, in recent times, there has been a push from major end-users, especially automotive OEMs, to have more price transparency and to use third-party independent contract references in negotiations.

Benchmark Mineral Intelligence has created a standard for pricing the special lithium chemistry for the battery supply chain that the industry can rely on.

Supply and demand: Miners, manufacturers and end-users

Lithium is a hot commodity in the mining, manufacturing, energy storage and automobile industries today. The current size of the market is small, but the potential is huge.

In 2016, the world’s leading lithium battery companies produced 29 GWh of batteries. This production is forecast to grow to 1,049 GWh by 2028, an increase of 3,516%.

Data collection and price reporting

There are three cornerstone factors Benchmark uses to set the lithium industry’s reference price.

  • Quality and grade of lithium

  • Shipping costs and volumes

  • Quality and reliability of information

Let’s take a deeper look at each one:

1. Quality and grade of lithium

Most of the world’s lithium comes from two sources: mined from hard rock deposits of pegmatites, or pumped from lithium brine salars.

Grade and impurity of extracted lithium have unique profiles which will affect its price. Lithium is converted into different compounds: spodumene concentrate, lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide.

These different varieties suit manufacturers’ exact specifications with different cost profiles.

2. Shipping costs and volumes

The origin and destination of lithium is an important choke point for pricing information. At these locations, “incoterms” are set rules that represent the destination and origin of the material, which in turn affects the cost of lithium.

3. Quality and reliability of information

In order to generate a lithium price, Benchmark embarks on the industry’s most rigorous price data collection process that relies on constant contact through e-mail, phone calls and in-person meetings.

Benchmark analysts evaluate the information received against volumes traded, the position of a company in the market and reliability of the source of information.

The results

Independent and accurate prices will be key as the lithium market grows, providing a solid foundation for contract negotiations and a level of transparency that will help attract capital to the market.

The varying nature of lithium chemicals makes it difficult to manage risk, but Benchmark is building a standard for pricing lithium to help manage this and set us off on a new era of energy.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

Belmont Resources plans September follow-up to high-grade gold sampling in southern B.C.

August 15th, 2019

by Greg Klein | August 15, 2019

Inspired by recent surface samples as high as 29.2 g/t gold, Belmont Resources TSXV:BEA plans another field program on its recently acquired Pathfinder project in British Columbia’s Greenwood camp. Scheduled to start early next month, the two-week campaign follows encouraging assays released late last month. Out of 15 samples, seven exceeded 1 g/t gold, with the best result bringing 29.2 g/t gold, 16.4 g/t silver, 365 ppm copper and 4 ppm lead.

Belmont Resources plans September follow-up to high-grade gold sampling in southern B.C.

Historic work at Pathfinder included trenching and drilling.

Now, backed by data gleaned from historic records, Belmont plans soil and grab sampling from the Pathfinder zone to the Diamond Hitch zone, on a target area averaging about 2,500 metres by 600 metres. Samples will be collected every 50 metres along the grid lines, with higher resolution possible for some areas.

The results would prepare for possible sub-surface exploration that could include geophysics and drilling. Pathfinder underwent trenching and 17 drill holes from 2008 to 2009. The 296-hectare property is surrounded on three sides by KG Exploration, a subsidiary of Kinross Gold TSX:K.

In Nevada, Belmont’s Kibby Basin lithium project has undergone drilling by MGX Minerals CSE:XMG, which has so far earned 25% of the project. Last May the companies announced a drill hole averaging 100 ppm lithium. Previous holes graded up to 393 ppm lithium over 42.4 metres and 415 ppm over 30.5 metres.

In northern Saskatchewan, Belmont and International Montoro Resources TSXV:IMT each hold 50% of two uranium properties.

Belmont expects to close a private placement of $252,000, subject to exchange approval.

92 Resources finds new potential for gold, copper, lithium in northern Quebec

August 8th, 2019

by Greg Klein | August 8, 2019

With the conclusion of a productive summer field program, additional areas of interest open up at the James Bay-region Corvette-FCI property. A four-person, 23-day campaign discovered a new copper prospect, further explored a gold prospect and found several spodumene-bearing pegmatites, among other showings. Encouraging visual evidence has 92 Resources TSXV:NTY looking forward to assays.

About three-quarters of the program focused on the project’s FCI-East and FCI-West blocks, optioned under a 75% earn-in from Osisko Mining TSX:OSK. The rest targeted 92’s 100%-held Corvette claims. 

92 Resources finds new potential for gold, copper, lithium in northern Quebec

Chalcopyrite mineralization at the Elsass copper
prospect opens a new area of interest for 92 Resources.

Discovered late in the season, the Elsass copper prospect features chalcopyrite mineralization at surface over widths estimated from 40 to 60 metres along a strike of at least a kilometre. Pending lab results for surface samples, the crew could return this fall for further exploration.

The company also awaits assays from the property’s Lac Bruno gold prospect. Finding similar mineralogy up-ice from a boulder field where historic, non-43-101 samples graded between 1 g/t and 38 g/t gold, the crew collected soil samples on the 100%-held Corvette claims.

Apart from precious and base metals, Corvette-FCI shows potential for energy minerals. The summer program found the project’s largest known pegmatite so far. An outcrop about 220 metres long and 20 to 40 metres wide was located about a kilometre southwest along strike of the property’s CV1 and CV2 pegmatites. Lithium-tantalum channel samples released last year from CV1 reached up to 2.28% Li2O and 471 ppm Ta2O5 over six metres. Still to come are this summer’s assays.

The campaign also targeted the Golden Gap prospect at FCI West, where historic results include outcrop samples between 3.1 g/t and 108.9 g/t gold, a drill intercept of 10.5 g/t over seven metres, and a channel sample of 14.5 g/t over two metres.

The summer program also focused on the southern copper trend and other historic mineral showings, 92 reported.

Corvette-FCI sits within the Lac Guyer Greenstone Belt, part of the La Grande Greenstone Belt, about six to 18 kilometres south of the Trans-Taiga Road and powerline.

The company’s Quebec portfolio also includes the Eastman, Lac du Beryl and Pontax properties. Grab samples from the latter graded up to 0.94% Li2O and 520 ppm Ta2O5.

92’s diverse projects extend to British Columbia and the Northwest Territories. In B.C. the company holds the Silver Sands vanadium prospect and, adjacent to Northern Silica’s high-grade Moberly silica mine, the Golden frac sand project. 92 also has a 40% stake in the NWT’s Hidden Lake lithium project, where Far Resources CSE:FAT holds the remainder. All 10 holes of last year’s 1,079-metre drill campaign found grades above 1% Li2O, with one intercept showing 1.6% over 9.2 metres. A mini pilot plant produced 40 kilograms of concentrate grading 6.11% Li2O, with recovery surpassing 80%, from Hidden Lake material.

Belmont Resources samples 29.2 g/t gold at B.C.’s Greenwood camp

July 30th, 2019

by Greg Klein | July 30, 2019

Recent work suggests new potential for an historic gold- and copper-producing region in southern British Columbia. Surface sampling results on a property acquired last March by Belmont Resources TSXV:BEA have graded up to 29.2 g/t gold.

Belmont Resources samples 29.2 g/t gold at B.C.’s Greenwood camp

An adit bears witness to Pathfinder’s auriferous history.

The project, now expanded to 295 hectares, formed part of the historic Pathfinder property in the Greenwood camp, where mining began in the late 1880s. Something like 26 former mines produced over 1.2 million ounces of gold and 270,000 tonnes of copper, along with silver, lead and zinc, according to Geoscience BC. More recent exploration includes work by Kinross Gold TSX:K subsidiary KG Exploration, which holds property neighbouring Belmont on three sides.

Following a detailed review of historic data, Belmont conducted a five-day field program of mapping and sampling from outcrops and mine waste. Seven out of 15 samples surpassed 1 g/t gold, with five standouts showing:

  • 29.2 g/t gold, 16.4 g/t silver, 365 ppm copper and 4 ppm lead

  • 4.51 g/t gold, 90.4 g/t silver, 21.6 ppm copper and 14,250 ppm lead

  • 3.23 g/t gold, 0.61 g/t silver, 383 ppm copper and 4.3 ppm lead

  • 2.44 g/t gold, 16.7 g/t silver, 5,180 ppm copper and 24.2 ppm lead

  • 1.08 g/t gold, 14.75 g/t silver, 47 ppm copper and 62.7 ppm lead

With continued analysis of historic data along with recent findings, Belmont will plan Pathfinder’s next stage of exploration. Among the earlier work was a 2008-2009 program that included trenching and 17 drill holes.

In Nevada the company holds the 2,056-hectare Kibby Basin lithium project, subject to an earn-in by MGX Minerals CSE:XMG. A drill hole announced last May brought results ranging from 38 ppm to 127 ppm lithium, with an average of 100 ppm. Previous holes graded up to 393 ppm lithium over 42.4 metres and 415 ppm over 30.5 metres.

Belmont also shares a 50/50 stake in two northern Saskatchewan uranium properties with International Montoro Resources TSXV:IMT.

Subject to exchange approval, Belmont expects to close an oversubscribed private placement of $252,000.

Update: 92 Resources explores polymetallic potential of Quebec’s James Bay region

July 8th, 2019

by Greg Klein | updated July 8, 2019

Lithium, gold, copper and molybdenum are among the goals of a program now underway at 92 Resources’ (TSXV:NTY) Corvette-FCI project. A four-person crew expects to spend three to four weeks on the property, which consists of 92’s 100%-held Corvette claims as well as the FCI-East and FCI-West turf, optioned under a 75% earn-in from Osisko Mining TSX:OSK. Work will be conducted by Dahrouge Geological Consulting.

92 Resources to explore polymetallic potential of Quebec’s James Bay region

Over a campaign of three to four weeks, 92 Resources hopes to
build on previous success with energy, precious and base metals.

The agenda calls for prospecting along with rock and soil sampling. Among the priorities will be the Golden Gap Prospect at FCI-West, where historic, non-43-101 outcrop samples have graded between 3.1 g/t and 108.9 g/t gold, along with an historic drill intercept of 10.5 g/t over seven metres and a channel sample of 14.5 g/t over two metres.

Past reports of molybdenum occurrences on the area’s southern copper trend will also come under scrutiny.

The Lac Bruno prospect provides another area of interest, where a boulder field produced 13 samples exceeding 1 g/t gold, with one sample hitting 38.1 g/t. Up-ice soil sampling will extend from FCI-East to the boulders’ interpreted source on 92’s wholly owned Corvette claims.

Energy metals also attract interest, as the company’s previous work identified a well-mineralized lithium pegmatite system over a strike extending at least three kilometres on Corvette, with further potential on FCI-East. Lithium-tantalum channel samples released last year from Corvette’s CV1 pegmatite averaged 1.35% Li2O and 109 ppm Ta2O5, reaching as high as 2.28% Li2O and 471 ppm Ta2O5 over six metres. Three other spodumene-bearing pegmatites also show promise.

Located within the Guyer group of the Greater La Grande Greenstone Belt, the property sits about 10 kilometres south of the all-season Trans-Taiga Road and powerline, adjacently south of Midland Exploration’s (TSXV:MD) Mythril copper-gold-molybdenum-silver project and immediately east of Pikwa, a polymetallic project of Azimut Exploration TSXV:AZM and Ressources Québec’s SOQUEM subsidiary.

92’s Quebec portfolio also includes the Pontax, Eastman and Lac du Beryl properties. Grab samples from Pontax have reached up to 0.94% Li2O and 520 ppm Ta2O5.

In British Columbia 92 holds the Silver Sands vanadium prospect and the Golden frac sand project, the latter adjacent to Northern Silica’s high-grade Moberly silica mine and subject of a 43-101 technical report filed by 92 last year.

In the Northwest Territories, the company has a 40% stake in the Hidden Lake lithium project, with Far Resources CSE:FAT holding the remainder. In a 1,079-metre drill program last year, all 10 holes found grades above 1% Li2O, with one intercept showing 1.6% over 9.2 metres. Using Hidden Lake material, a mini pilot plant produced 40 kilograms of concentrate grading 6.11% Li2O with recovery over 80%.

MGX Renewables introduces new fuel cell, anticipates July trading

June 28th, 2019

by Greg Klein | June 28, 2019

Having completed its spin-out from a parent company, gained conditional listing approval and closed a financing, a new company prepares to bring new technology to the green energy market. MGX Renewables expects to begin CSE trading on or before July 11.

MGX Renewables introduces new fuel cell, anticipates July trading

Over 20 patents went into the creation of the company’s first product, an energy storage system using rechargeable zinc-air fuel cell technology. Offering greater stability to solar- and wind-generated electricity, the system provides backup power that can range from 5 kW to 100 kW by enlarging the fuel tank. Modular design allows the addition of greater capacity.

MGX Renewables says the system overcomes limitations of lithium-ion batteries that are constrained by “a fixed power-to-energy ratio severely limiting flexibility and significantly increasing cost of energy storage when limited output power is required.”

The company says much lower storage costs reflect “a paradigm shift essentially eliminating the traditional fixed power-energy ratio and allowing for scaleable power with highly flexible energy storage.”

Parent company MGX Minerals CSE:XMG spun out approximately 40% of MGX Renewables, retaining about 18 million shares. Gross proceeds of $2,005,000 from a previous subscription have been released to the new company. MGX Renewables received conditional CSE trading approval in April.

92 Resources to explore polymetallic potential of Quebec’s James Bay region

June 19th, 2019

by Greg Klein | June 19, 2019

Lithium, gold, copper and molybdenum are among the goals of a program that begins next month at 92 Resources’ (TSXV:NTY) Corvette-FCI project. The property consists of 92’s 100%-held Corvette claims as well as the FCI-East and FCI-West turf, optioned under a 75% earn-in from Osisko Mining TSX:OSK. Work will be conducted by Dahrouge Geological Consulting.

92 Resources to explore polymetallic potential of Quebec’s James Bay region

Over a campaign of three to four weeks, 92 Resources hopes to
build on previous success with energy, precious and base metals.

The agenda calls for prospecting along with rock and soil sampling. Among the priorities will be the Golden Gap Prospect at FCI-West, where historic, non-43-101 outcrop samples have graded between 3.1 g/t and 108.9 g/t gold, along with an historic drill intercept of 10.5 g/t over seven metres and a channel sample of 14.5 g/t over two metres.

Past reports of molybdenum occurrences on the area’s southern copper trend will also come under scrutiny.

The Lac Bruno prospect provides another area of interest, where a boulder field produced 13 samples exceeding 1 g/t gold, with one sample hitting 38.1 g/t. Up-ice soil sampling will extend from FCI-East to the boulders’ interpreted source on 92’s wholly owned Corvette claims.

Energy metals also attract interest, as the company’s previous work identified a well-mineralized lithium pegmatite system over a strike extending at least three kilometres on Corvette, with further potential on FCI-East. Lithium-tantalum channel samples released last year from Corvette’s CV1 pegmatite averaged 1.35% Li2O and 109 ppm Ta2O5, reaching as high as 2.28% Li2O and 471 ppm Ta2O5 over six metres. Three other spodumene-bearing pegmatites also show promise.

Located within the Guyer group of the Greater La Grande Greenstone Belt, the property sits about 10 kilometres south of the all-season Trans-Taiga Road and powerline, adjacently south of Midland Exploration’s (TSXV:MD) Mythril copper-gold-molybdenum-silver project and immediately east of Pikwa, a polymetallic project of Azimut Exploration TSXV:AZM and Ressources Québec’s SOQUEM subsidiary.

92’s Quebec portfolio also includes the Pontax, Eastman and Lac du Beryl properties. Grab samples from Pontax have reached up to 0.94% Li2O and 520 ppm Ta2O5.

In British Columbia 92 holds the Silver Sands vanadium prospect and the Golden frac sand project, the latter adjacent to Northern Silica’s high-grade Moberly silica mine and subject of a 43-101 technical report filed by 92 last year.

In the Northwest Territories, the company has a 40% stake in the Hidden Lake lithium project, with Far Resources CSE:FAT holding the remainder. In a 1,079-metre drill program last year, all 10 holes found grades above 1% Li2O, with one intercept showing 1.6% over 9.2 metres. Using Hidden Lake material, a mini pilot plant produced 40 kilograms of concentrate grading 6.11% Li2O with recovery over 80%.

Technology metals expert Jack Lifton calls for progress on critical minerals

June 17th, 2019

…Read more

Senkaku revisited

May 29th, 2019

China-U.S. trade tactics highlight rare earths peril and potential

by Greg Klein | May 29, 2019

China-U.S. trade tactics highlight rare earths peril and potential

 

They’re vital to several categories of modern essentials including military defence. But rare earths have themselves become weapons in an escalating conflict between China and the U.S. Despite Washington’s heightened awareness of its critical minerals conundrum, the U.S., like the rest of the non-Chinese world, remains almost completely dependent on its rival-turned-enemy for the rare earths that China threatens to cut off.

Among recent hints, comments and implied threats was last week’s well-publicized visit to a Chinese RE plant by President Xi Jinping and his top trade negotiator, where the leader reportedly steeled his country’s resolve with talk of an impending “Long March.” Additionally significant and non-cryptic code came in a May 29 admonition from the state-run People’s Daily: “Don’t say I didn’t warn you.”

China-U.S. trade tactics highlight rare earths peril and potential

Northern Minerals’ Browns Range pilot plant readies
a Western Australia project for Chinese customers.

If a full-blown trade war’s imminent, it’s not without irony. In a change of plans the U.S. has dropped rare earths from a long list of tariff-attached imports, tacitly acknowledging its dependency on China. China did the opposite, increasing its tariff from 10% to 25% on RE imports from America, a small portion of China’s supply but nevertheless an increase to the cost of its trade war weaponry.

The 17 elements comprise essential components for a host of modern necessities including phones, computers and other communications and electronic devices, electric vehicles, batteries, renewable energy and military defence.

China already mines over 70% of global supply, according to 2018 data from the U.S. Geological Survey, and that doesn’t include illegal Chinese production. The U.S. relies on China for 80% of RE compounds and metals. America imports another 11% from Estonia, France and Japan, but that stuff’s “derived from mineral concentrates and chemical intermediates produced in China and elsewhere,” the USGS added.

The risks of an all-out trade war might be demonstrated by the 2010 East China Sea conflict, where China and Japan both claim the islands of Senkaku. When a Chinese fishing boat captain felt emboldened to twice ram a Japanese naval vessel, Japan arrested him. Within days, China banned all rare earths exports to Japan, crippling its globally important but RE-dependent manufacturers. China also imposed heavy cutbacks and duties on exports to other countries.

China-U.S. trade tactics highlight rare earths peril and potential

A Greenland Minerals MOU would commit the
proposed Kvanefjeld mine’s total RE production to China.

Desperate for RE supply, some non-Chinese manufacturers relocated to China. Meanwhile Western resource companies strove to develop alternative supplies. By 2013 two new mines reached production, Lynas Corp’s Mount Weld in Western Australia and Molycorp’s Mountain Pass in California. The following year the World Trade Organization ordered China to drop its export restrictions on rare earths, as well as tungsten and molybdenum.

China complied with a vengeance, flooding the world with cheap RE supply. America’s WTO victory proved Pyrrhic as a burgeoning non-Chinese supply chain failed to compete. The most salient casualty was Mountain Pass, which suspended operations during 2015 bankruptcy proceedings.

The mine resumed production in early 2018 under new owner MP Materials. But with China’s Shenghe Rare Earth Company a minority shareholder, North America’s only RE producer exports its entire output to China.

Lynas, meanwhile, remains committed to serving non-Chinese markets through a non-Chinese supply chain. But skeptics might consider the company’s strategy precarious. Plans announced last week include a refinery in Texas that’s merely at the MOU stage, an AU$500-million financing commitment that appears inadequate to the company’s needs and an unconvincing proposal to meet a Malaysian ultimatum with alternative ideas.

Home to Lynas’ refining and separation facility, Malaysia insists the company remove over 450,000 tonnes of radioactive waste by September or face a shutdown. The country also wants future Mount Weld material rendered non-radioactive prior to arrival. (Update: On May 30 Malaysia’s prime minister said the government will likely allow Lynas’ plant to continue operation, according to Reuters.)

China-U.S. trade tactics highlight rare earths peril and potential

At a northern Quebec rare earths deposit, Commerce
Resources’ Ashram project moves towards pre-feasibility.

An AU$1.5-billion takeover bid from deep-pocketed giant Wesfarmers might offer a made-in-Australia solution. But Lynas has so far held itself aloof.

The CEO’s commitment to non-Chinese markets, however, differs from some other Australian companies. ASX-listed Northern Minerals, self-described as “the first and only meaningful producer of dysprosium outside of China,” has committed the total production of its Western Australia Browns Range project to China, apparently at the behest of minority shareholder Huatai Mining. Last August ASX-listed Greenland Minerals signed an offtake MOU with majority shareholder Shenghe Resources, which would give China the proposed Kvanefjeld mine’s total RE production.

Technology metals expert Jack Lifton emphasizes the need for non-Chinese resources and expertise: “If we don’t reconstitute a total American supply chain, if the Europeans don’t do the same, for the critical materials like rare earths, cobalt, lithium, we’re going to be out of luck,” he told ResourceClips.com.

Heightened awareness in Washington led to 35 minerals getting a formal “critical” classification, a prelude to last year’s Secretary of Defense study calling for government initiatives to encourage domestic supply chains. More recently, a bipartisan group of U.S. senators proposed legislation to prod the country into action.

That approach rankles those who prefer laissez-faire solutions. Moreover government meddling in the form of trade wars can backfire, libertarians believe. As Rick Rule said last week, “If the Chinese decided to obviate their competitive advantage with some stupid political ploy, they would find themselves with a much smaller proportion of the global market.”

Many investors seem to have agreed. Following China’s May 29 rhetoric, stock prices surged for advanced-stage RE projects.

Infographic: Visualizing copper’s role in the transition to clean energy

May 28th, 2019

by Nicholas LePan | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | May 28, 2019

A future powered by renewables is not on the distant horizon, but is rather in its early hours.

This new dawn comes from a global awareness of the environmental impacts of the current energy mix, which relies heavily on fossil fuels and their associated greenhouse gas emissions.

Technologies such as wind, solar and batteries offer renewable and clean alternatives, and are leading the way for the transition to clean energy. However, as with every energy transition, there are not only new technologies, but also new material demands.

Copper: A key piece of the puzzle

This energy transition will be mineral-intensive and it will require metals such as nickel, lithium and cobalt. However one metal stands out as being particularly important, and that is copper.

This infographic comes to us from the Copper Development Association and outlines the special role of copper in renewable power generation, energy storage and electric vehicles.

Visualizing copper’s role in the transition to clean energy

 

Why copper?

The red metal has four key properties that make it ideal for the clean energy transition.

1. Conductivity

2. Ductility

3. Efficiency

4. Recyclability

It is these properties that make copper the critical material for wind and solar technology, energy storage and electric vehicles.

These properties also explain why, according to ThinkCopper, solar- and wind-generated electricity uses four to six times more copper than electricity from fossil fuel sources.

Copper in wind

A three-megawatt wind turbine can contain up to 4.7 tons of copper with 53% of that demand coming from the cable and wiring, 24% from the turbine/power generation components, 4% from transformers and 19% from turbine transformers.

The use of copper significantly increases when going offshore. Onshore wind farms use approximately 7,766 pounds of copper per MW, while an offshore wind installation uses 21,068 pounds of copper per MW.

It is the cabling of the offshore wind farms to connect them to each other and to deliver the power that accounts for the bulk of the copper usage.

Copper in solar

Solar power systems can contain approximately 5.5 tons of copper per MW. Copper is in the heat exchangers of solar thermal units as well as in the wiring and cabling that transmits the electricity in photo-voltaic solar cells.

Navigant Research projects that 262 GW of new solar installations between 2018 and 2027 in North America will require 1.9 billion pounds of copper.

Copper in energy storage

There are many ways to store energy, but every method uses copper. For example, a lithium-ion battery contains 440 pounds of copper per MW and a flow battery 540 pounds of copper per MW.

Copper wiring and cabling connects renewable power generation with energy storage, while the copper in the switches of transformers helps deliver power at the right voltage.

Across the United States, a total of 5,752 MW of energy capacity has been announced and commissioned.

Copper in electric vehicles

Copper is at the heart of the electric vehicle. This is because EVs rely on copper for the motor coil that drives the engine.

The more electric the car, the more copper it needs; a car powered by an internal combustion engine contains roughly 48 pounds, a hybrid needs 88 pounds and a battery electric vehicle uses 184 pounds.

Additionally, the cabling for charging stations of electric vehicles will be another source of copper demand.

The copper future

Advances in technologies create new material demands.

Therefore it shouldn’t be surprising that the transition to renewables is going to create demand for many minerals—and copper is going to be a critical mineral for the new era of energy.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.