Saturday 21st July 2018

Resource Clips


Posts tagged ‘iron ore’

Infographic: The history of North American co-operation on aluminum and steel

May 23rd, 2018

by Jeff Desjardins | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist

As the global rhetoric around trade heats up, aluminum and steel are two metals that have been unexpectedly thrust into the international spotlight.

Both metals are getting considerable attention as journalists and pundits analyze how tariffs may impact international markets and trade relations. But in that coverage so far, one thing that may have been missed is the interesting history and context of these metals, especially within the framework of trade in North America.

Aluminum and steel in North America

This infographic tells the story of an ongoing North American partnership in these goods, and how this co-operation even helped U.S. and Canadian efforts in World War II, as well as addressing other issues of national security.

 

The history of North American co-operation on aluminum and steel

 

Aluminum and steel are metals that are not only essential for industry to thrive, but they are also needed to build infrastructure and ensure national security.

Because of the importance of these metals, countries in North America have been co-operating for many decades to guarantee the best possible supply chains for both aluminum and steel.

The history: Aluminum and steel

Here are some of the major events that involve the two metals, from the perspective of North American trade and co-operation.

1899
The Pittsburgh Reduction Company, later the Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa), begins construction of a power plant and aluminum smelter in Shawinigan Falls, Quebec.

1901
The company produces the first aluminum ever on Canadian soil.

1902
This Canadian division is renamed the Northern Aluminum Company

New uses and WWI

1903
The Wright brothers use aluminum in their first plane at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

1908
The first Model T rolls off the assembly line, and steel is a primary component.

1910
The U.S. and Canadian steel industries surround the Great Lakes region. At this point the U.S. produces more steel than any other country in the world.

1913
The U.S. passes the Underwood Tariff, a general reduction in tariff rates that affected Canadian exporters. Zero or near-zero tariffs were introduced for steel. (The Canadian Encylopedia)

1914
At this point, 80% of American-made cars had aluminum crank and gear cases.

World War I
The Great War breaks out. It’s the first ever “modern war” and metals become strategically important in a way like never before. For the first three years, the U.S. helps the Allies—including Canada, which is already at war—by providing supplies.

Steel was crucial for ships, railways, shells, submarines and airplanes. Meanwhile, aluminum was used in explosives, ammunition and machine guns. The Liberty V12 engine, which powered Allied planes, was one-third aluminum.

During this stretch, America produced three times as much steel as Germany and Austria. By the end of the war, military usage of aluminum is sucking up 90% of all North American production.

Inter-war period

1919
After the war, the interruption of European aluminum shipments to North America drives up Northern Aluminum sales to the United States. In 1919, U.S. aluminum imports from Northern Aluminum total 5,643 tons, while all European producers add up to 2,360 tons.

1925
After aluminum gains post-war acceptance from consumers, Alcoa uses this new momentum to strike a deal to build one of the world’s greatest aluminum complexes in Quebec on the Saguenay River.

These facilities become the base for Northern Aluminum, which changes its name to the Aluminum Company of Canada (Alcan). By 1927, the area includes a new company town (Arvida), a 27,000-ton smelter and a hydro power plant. This complex would eventually become the world’s largest aluminum production site for WWII.

1929
The Roaring Twenties saw consumer culture take off, with auto and appliance sales escalating. Steel and aluminum demand continues to soar.

World War II

1940
Canada and the U.S. establish the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, still in operation today. Near the same time, the Canadian-American defence industrial alliance, known as the Defence Production Sharing Program, is also established.

1941
Canada and the U.S. agree to co-ordinate production of war materials to reduce duplication, and to allow each country to specialize, with The Hyde Park Declaration of 1941.

The record proves that in peaceful commerce the combined efforts of our countries can produce outstanding results. Our trade with each other is far greater than that of any other two nations on earth.—Harry Truman,
33rd U.S. president, 1947

The principles of this declaration recognize North America as a single, integrated defence industrial base.

1942
Canada builds the Bagotville airbase to protect the aluminum complex and hydro plants of the Saguenay region, which were crucial in supplying American and Canadian forces. A Hawker Hurricane squadron is permanently stationed to protect the area.

1945
The Saguenay facilities were so prolific that Canada supplied 40% of the Allies’ total aluminum production.

Cold War and North American integration

1952
The U.S. focuses on Canadian resources after the President’s Materials Policy Commission warns of future shortages of various metals, which could make the U.S. dependent on insecure foreign sources during times of conflict.

1956
Canada and the U.S. sign the Defence Production Sharing Agreement, which aims to maintain a balance in trade for defence products. At this point, Canada relies on the U.S. for military technology—and the U.S. relies on Canada for important military inputs.

1959
The St. Lawrence Seaway opens, providing ocean-going vessels access to Canadian and U.S. ports on the Great Lakes. This facilitates the shipping of iron ore, steel and aluminum.

1965
The Canada-U.S. Auto Pact allows for the integration of the Canadian and U.S. auto industries in a shared North American market. This paves the way for iron ore, steel and aluminum trade.

1989
The U.S. and Canada sign a free trade agreement, which eventually gets rolled into NAFTA in 1994.

Modern aluminum and steel trade

2007
U.S. Steel buys the Steel Company of Canada (Stelco) for $1.9 billion.

Today
The U.S. and Canada are each other’s best international customer for a variety of goods—including steel and aluminum.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

Crucial commodities

September 8th, 2017

Price/supply concerns draw end-users to Commerce Resources’ rare earths-tantalum-niobium projects

by Greg Klein

“One of the things that really galls me is that the F-35 is flying around with over 900 pounds of Chinese REEs in it.”

That typifies some of the remarks Commerce Resources TSXV:CCE president Chris Grove hears from end-users of rare earths and rare metals. Steeply rising prices for magnet feed REEs and critical minerals like tantalum—not to mention concern about stable, geopolitically friendly sources—have brought even greater interest in the company’s two advanced projects, the Ashram rare earths deposit in northern Quebec and the Blue River tantalum-niobium deposit in southeastern British Columbia. Now Commerce has a list of potential customers and processors waiting for samples from both properties.

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F-35 fighter jets alongside the USS America:
Chinese rare earths in action.
(Photo: Lockheed Martin)

Of course with China supplying over 90% of the world’s REEs, governments and industries in many countries have cause for concern. Tantalum moves to market through sometimes disturbingly vague supply lines, with about 37% of last year’s production coming from the Democratic Republic of Congo and 32% from Rwanda, according to the U.S. Geological Survey. One company in Brazil, Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração (CBMM), produces about 85% of the world’s niobium, another critical mineral.

As Ashram moves towards pre-feasibility, Commerce has a team busy getting a backlog of core to the assay lab. But tantalum and niobium, the original metals of interest for Commerce, have returned to the fore as well, with early-stage exploration on the Quebec property and metallurgical studies on the B.C. deposit.

The upcoming assays will come from 14 holes totalling 2,014 metres sunk last year, mostly definition drilling. Initial geological review and XRF data suggest significant intervals in several holes, including a large stepout to the southeast, Grove’s team reports.

“We’re always excited to see this project’s drilling results,” he says. “We know we’re in carbonatite basically all of the time and over the last five years, in all the 9,200 metres we’ve done since the last resource calculation, we’ve basically always hit more material than was modelled in the original resource—i.e. we’ve always found less waste rock at surface, we’ve always hit material in the condemnation holes and we’ve always had intersections of higher-grade material. So all those things look exciting for this program.”

Carbonatite comprises a key Ashram distinction. The deposit sits within carbonatite host rock and the minerals monazite, bastnasite and xenotime, which are well understood in commercial REE processing. That advantage distinguishes Ashram from REE hopefuls that foundered over mineralogical challenges. Along with resource size, mineralogy has Grove confident of Ashram’s potential as a low-cost producer competing with China.

As for size, a 2012 resource used a 1.25% cutoff to show:

  • measured: 1.59 million tonnes averaging 1.77% total rare earth oxides

  • indicated: 27.67 million tonnes averaging 1.9% TREO

  • inferred: 219.8 million tonnes averaging 1.88% TREO

A near-surface—sometimes at-surface—deposit, Ashram also features strong distribution of neodymium, europium, terbium, dysprosium and yttrium, all critical elements and some especially costly. Neodymium and dysprosium prices have shot up 80% this year.

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Commerce Resources’ field crew poses at the Eldor property,
home to the Ashram deposit and Miranna prospect.

Comparing Ashram’s inferred gross tonnage of nearly 220 million tonnes with the measured and indicated total of less than 30 million tonnes, Grove sees considerable potential to bolster the M&I as well as increase the resource’s overall size and average grade.

This season’s field program includes prospecting in the Miranna area about a kilometre from the deposit. Miranna was the site of 2015 boulder sampling that brought “spectacular” niobium grades up to 5.9% Nb2O5, nearly twice the average grade of the world’s largest producer, CBMM’s Araxá mine, Grove says. Some tantalum standouts showed 1,220 ppm and 1,040 ppm Ta2O5. Significant results for phosphate and rare earth oxides were also apparent.

Should Miranna prove drill-worthy, the synergies with Ashram would be obvious.

That’s the early-stage aspect of Commerce’s tantalum-niobium work. In B.C. the company’s Blue River deposit reached PEA in 2011, with a resource update in 2013. Based on a tantalum price of $381 per kilo, the estimate showed:

  • indicated: 48.41 million tonnes averaging 197 ppm Ta2O5 and 1,610 ppm Nb2O5 for 9.56 million kilograms Ta2O5 and 77.81 kilograms Nb2O5

  • inferred: 5.4 million tonnes averaging 191 ppm Ta2O5 and 1,760 ppm Nb2O5 for 1 million kilograms Ta2O5 and 9.6 million kilograms Nb2O5

Actually that should be 1,300 kilograms less. That’s the size of a sample on its way to Estonia for evaluation by Alexander Krupin, an expert in processing high-grade tantalum and niobium concentrates. “As with Ashram, we’ve already found that standard processing works well for Blue River,” Grove points out. “However, if Krupin’s proprietary method proves even more efficient, why wouldn’t we look at it?”

We’re always excited to see this project’s drilling results. We know we’re in carbonatite basically all of the time and over the last five years, in all the 9,200 metres we’ve done since the last resource calculation, we’ve basically always hit more material than was modelled in the original resource.—Chris Grove,
president of Commerce Resources

Back to rare earths, Commerce signed an MOU with Ucore Rare Metals TSXV:UCU to assess Ashram material for a proprietary method of selective processing. Others planning to test proprietary techniques on Ashram include Texas Mineral Resources and K-Technologies, Rare Earth Salts, Innovation Metals Corp, the University of Tennessee and NanoScience Solutions at Tufts University in Massachusetts.

Should proprietary methods work, all the better, Grove states. But he emphasizes that standard metallurgical tests have already succeeded, making a cheaper process unnecessary for both Blue River and Ashram.

Potential customers show interest too. Concentrate sample requests have come from Solvay, Mitsubishi, Treibacher, BASF, DKK, Albemarle, Blue Line and others covered by non-disclosure agreements. Requests have also come for samples of fluorspar, a potential Ashram byproduct and another mineral subject to rising prices and Chinese supply dominance.

A solid expression of interest came from the province too, as Ressources Québec invested $1 million in a February private placement. The provincial government corporation describes itself as focusing “on projects that have good return prospects and foster Quebec’s economic development.”

Also fostering the mining-friendly jurisdiction’s economic development is Plan Nord, which has pledged $1.3 billion to infrastructure over five years. The provincial road to Renard helped make Stornoway Diamond’s (TSX:SWY) mine a reality. Other projects that would benefit from a road extension towards Ashram would be Lac Otelnuk, located 80 kilometres south. The Sprott Resource Holdings TSX:SRHI/WISCO JV holds Canada’s largest iron ore deposit. Some projects north of Ashram include the Kan gold-base metals project of Barrick Gold TSX:ABX and Osisko Mining TSX:OSK, as well as properties held by Midland Exploration TSXV:MD.

But, Grove says, it’s rising prices and security of supply that have processors and end-users metaphorically beating a path to his company’s door. And maybe nothing demonstrates the criticality of critical minerals better than a nearby superpower that relies on a geopolitical rival for commodities essential to national defence.

Visual Capitalist: How copper riches helped shape Chile’s economic story

June 21st, 2017

by Jeff Desjardins | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | June 21, 2017

Although Chile has always been noted for its abundant mineral wealth, the country was actually not a notable copper producer even at the beginning of the 20th century.

In 1907, for example, the United States was able to produce nearly 14 times as much copper as Chile. The reality was that shortages in capital, organization and water kept the country’s massive, low-grade deposits from being developed at any significant scale.

The copper standard

Things would change dramatically for Chile. The country has been the world’s top copper producer now for over 30 years, and today close to 50% of the country’s exports come from copper-related products.

This infographic comes from Altiplano Minerals TSXV:APN and it tells the story of how Chile tapped into its copper wealth to become the richest and freest economy in Latin America.

 

How copper riches helped shape Chile’s economic story

 

New milling technology, economic reforms and increasing investment attractiveness were catalysts that turned Chile into a copper powerhouse. In turn, copper exports helped propel the Chilean economy to new heights.

“The miracle of Chile”

This incredible leap can be summed up aptly with two facts:

1) Copper production went from under one million tonnes per year (late 1970s) to over five million tonnes per year (2000s).

2) Despite this massive rise, copper as a percentage of exports fell. It went from a peak of 80% of exports to more like 50% today.

Over this time, as the economy diversified, Chilean GDP per capita (PPP) gained massive ground on the Latin American average and passed it in the early 1990s.

Chile’s GDP per capita today is the highest in Latin America of major economies:

 

  GDP per capita (2015, PPP)
Chile $24,170
Argentina $22,459
Mexico $18,370
Venezuela $17,430
Brazil $15,941
Colombia $14,164
Peru $12,639
Ecuador $11,839
Guatemala $7,704

 

That said, critics of Chile’s economy will point to its inequality. The country’s Gini Coefficient, according to the World Bank, is higher (less equal) than only a handful of Latin American and Caribbean economies: Panama, Belize, Haiti, Suriname, Honduras and Colombia.

Mining in Chile today

Today, Chile’s mines produce copper, gold, molybdenum, iron and silver. The country also produces more lithium than any country from its salars.

The country is the world’s undisputed copper heavyweight champion—it’s been the top producer for 30-plus years and holds an impressive seven of the world’s top 14 copper mines. The biggest mine, Escondida, produces over a million tonnes of the red metal each year, equal to 5% of the world’s annual copper supply.

The copper crown is likely to be held by Chile in the future, as well. According to the Chilean Copper Commission (Cochilco), between 2000 and 2015 about 35 copper deposits and three gold deposits were discovered in central-north Chile. They increased the country’s resources by 208.6 million tons of copper and 34.3 million ounces of gold.

The new copper discovered is roughly equal to 30% of global discoveries over the same time period.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

Peregrine Diamonds outlines Nunavut spending plans as Chidliak moves to pre-feas

November 25th, 2016

by Greg Klein | November 25, 2016

Having poured about $23 million into Nunavut so far, Peregrine Diamonds TSX:PGD plans to spend another $15.5 million to $17 million next year on its Chidliak project, the Nunatsiaq News reported November 25. Most of the $23 million went to Iqaluit, home to an estimated 7,590 people. “It will cost between $50 and $75 million to go from here to where we need to get to,” the journal quoted president/CEO Tom Peregoodoff.

Peregrine Diamonds outlines Nunavut spending plans as Chidliak moves to pre-feas

Chidliak would have a 10-year lifespan,
according to last summer’s PEA.

The Baffin Island project reached PEA in July, calling for a capex of $434.9 million, an amount relatively modest for an isolated operation but considerable for a territory of about 37,082 people. The company hopes to reach feasibility by H2 2019, complete permitting by the end of that year and begin construction in H2 2019. Should hopes, financing and feasibility fall into place, Peregrine might be digging diamonds by 2021.

Brothers Robert and Eric Friedland own about 25% and 21% of the company respectively.

New infrastructure would include an all-season road to Iqaluit, about 120 kilometres southwest. The government of Nunavut hopes to have an $85-million deep sea port built there by 2020.

The territory currently has two other mines in production, Agnico Eagle’s (TSX:AEM) Meadowbank gold mine about 300 kilometres west of Hudson Bay and Baffinland Iron Mines’ Mary River iron ore operation roughly 800 kilometres north of Chidliak. Baffinland trucks ore to its own port, 100 kilometres north of the mine.

Peregoodoff said the company has yet to negotiate an Inuit Impact and Benefits Agreement, but stated such a deal would probably resemble agreements signed with Northwest Territories diamond producers, the News added.

In October the paper reported Nunavut’s 14,000-member Qikiqtani Inuit Association received more than $24 million over two years from Mary River.

Should Peregrine meet its goal, Chidliak wouldn’t be Nunavut’s first diamond operation. Just across the border from the NWT’s Lac de Gras camp, Nunavut’s Jericho mine produced gems between 2006 and 2008. Shear Minerals gave up on its restart attempt in 2012, leaving taxpayers with a large part of an estimated $10.5-million clean-up bill.

Yet diamond mining transformed the NWT economy. According to figures supplied by the NWT and Nunavut Chamber of Mines, between 1996 and 2015 the industry provided over 50,000 person-years of employment, 49% northern and 24% aboriginal. By far the territory’s largest private sector industry, diamond mining created 29% of the NWT’s GDP in 2014. Direct and indirect benefits bring the number up to 40%, according to chamber data.

Read how diamond mining supports the NWT economy.

Peregrine Diamonds outlines Nunavut spending plans as Chidliak moves to pre-feas

NWT Premier Bob McLeod, far right, celebrates aboriginal governments’ contributions to diamond mining
on the industry’s 25th anniversary in the territory. From left are Stanley Anablak (Kitikmeot Inuit Association),
Darryl Bohnet (Northwest Territory Métis Nation), Don Balsillie (Deninu Kué First Nation), Felix Lockhart
(Lutsel K’e and Kache Dene First Nation), Bill Enge (North Slave Métis Alliance), Chief Ernest Betsina and
Chief Edward Sangris (Yellowknives Dene First Nation), Chief Alfonz Nitsiza and Chief Clifford Daniels
(Tłı ̨chǫ Government), and Premier McLeod. (Photo: NWT and Nunavut Chamber of Mines)

Infographic: Countries of origin for raw materials

November 16th, 2016

Graphic by BullionVault | text by Jeff Desjardins | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | November 16, 2016

Every “thing” comes from somewhere.

Whether we are talking about an iPhone or a battery, even the most complex technological device is made up of raw materials that originate in a mine, farm, well or forest somewhere in the world.

This infographic from BullionVault shows the top three producing countries of various commodities such as oil, gold, coffee and iron.

Infographic Countries of origin for raw materials

 

The many and the few

The origins of the world’s most important raw materials are interesting to examine because the production of certain commodities is much more concentrated than others.

Oil, for example, is extracted by many countries throughout the world because it forms in fairly universal circumstances. Oil is also a giant market and a strategic resource, so some countries are even willing to produce it at a loss. The largest three crude oil-producing countries are the United States, Saudi Arabia and Russia—but that only makes up 38% of the total market.

Contrast this with the market for some base metals such as iron or lead and the difference is clear. China consumes mind-boggling amounts of raw materials to feed its factories, so it tries to get them domestically. That’s why China alone produces 45% of the world’s iron and 52% of all lead. Nearby Australia also finds a way to take advantage of this: It is the second-largest producer for each of those commodities and ships much of its output to Chinese trading partners. A total of two-thirds of the world’s iron and lead comes from these two countries, making production extremely concentrated.

But even that pales in comparison with the market for platinum, which is so heavily concentrated that only a few countries are significant producers. South Africa extracts 71% of all platinum, while Russia and Zimbabwe combine for another 19% of global production. That means only one in every 10 ounces of platinum comes from a country other than those three sources.

Graphic by BullionVault | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

Inuit org launches legacy fund for $24 million in mine royalties

October 5th, 2016

by Greg Klein | October 5, 2016

A Nunavut Inuit organization has collected more than $24 million from a mine that’s been in operation for two years, the Nunatsiaq News reported. The Qikiqtani Inuit Association gets the money from Baffinland Iron Mines under an Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement for the Mary River iron ore mine, which began operations in September 2014. The QIA represents over 14,000 people.

Inuit org launches legacy fund for $24 million in mine royalties

Photo: Qikiqtani Inuit Association

“All of the Mary River project IIBA royalties have been sitting in a separate QIA account accumulating interest,” the paper quoted organization president P.J. Akeeagok speaking at an AGM on October 4. “The current value of that account is $24.2 million, to March 31, 2016.”

On October 5 the organization announced a legacy fund to deliver programs as well as guard the money for future generations. “We will want to hear from Inuit in our region what they would like to see done in terms of programming or projects with the Inuit money,” Akeeagok stated.

Early last month the group launched arbitration proceedings against the northern Baffin Island miner, claiming the company owed advance royalties of $6.25 million plus interest. “QIA is aware that the Mary River project has experienced financial pressures, but QIA negotiated substantial financial participation payments in the IIBA as compensation for the impact to Inuit of BIMC mining activities on Inuit Owned Lands,” the organization stated. “As such it is imperative to QIA that the objectives and intent of all IIBA provisions be complied with to the greatest extent possible.”

The dispute goes to a three-person panel in Vancouver on October 25 and 26.

Baffinland is held 50/50 by Iron Ore Holdings and ArcelorMittal, with the latter acting as project operator. Unprocessed ore is trucked 100 kilometres north to Milne port, from where it’s shipped to European customers.

Diamonds for future demand

July 8th, 2016

Dominion gives Jay the go-ahead while Peregrine brings Chidliak to PEA

by Greg Klein

Spurned by the forces driving gold and silver, diamonds’ sparkle may have sputtered. But looking further ahead Canadian companies remain optimistic, and demonstrably so. This week Dominion Diamond TSX:DDC announced plans to move forward with the previously postponed Jay pipe addition to the Northwest Territories’ Ekati mine. One day later Peregrine Diamonds TSX:PGD outlined an ambitious scenario for Chidliak, suggesting a possible Nunavut gem operation by 2021. Meanwhile progress continues on two very near-term producers in the NWT and Quebec.

Baffin Island remoteness be damned, Chidliak could come online for well under a half billion dollars, according to a July 7 preliminary economic assessment. The study foresees Phase I open pit mining beginning with the property’s CH-6 pipe, followed by CH-7, 15 kilometres away. Output would average 1.2 million carats per year for a decade, peaking at 1.8 million carats.

Dominion gives Jay the go-ahead while Peregrine brings Chidliak to PEA

Peregrine Diamonds sees potential to expand existing
resources and find new deposits on its Nunavut kimberlites.

Using a 7.5% discount rate, the PEA calculates an after-tax NPV of $471.2 million and a 29.8% IRR. Initial capex would come to $434.9 million with payback in two years. Costs include 160 kilometres of all-weather road to the territorial capital of Iqaluit.

Not mentioned in the announcement, however, is the town’s lack of port facilities. The island’s only operating mine is Mary River, 935 kilometres north of Iqaluit. Operator Baffinland Iron Mines runs its own port at Milne Inlet, another 100 kilometres north. The company has proposed replacing the road with a railway.

A March diamond evaluation gave CH-6 an average $149 per carat and CH-7 $114. But assuming 2.5% annual price increases, life-of-mine averages would come to $178 and $153 respectively, Peregrine stated.

CH-6 holds by far the largest resource, with an inferred 11.39 million carats compared with CH-7’s inferred 4.23 million. Both resources remain open at depth.

Anticipating the direction that pre-feas studies could take, company president/CEO Tom Peregoodoff spoke of “optimization studies of the Phase I mine, including the expansion of the CH-6 resource to depth and through the development of a potential Phase II resource expansion from the numerous other kimberlites on the property, of which six currently show economic potential.” Chidliak’s 564,396 hectares host 74 known kimberlites.

A few thousand sub-arctic kilometres away, the world’s third-largest diamond miner by value has put its on-again, off-again Jay pipe back on again. The Ekati mine’s most significant undeveloped deposit, the kimberlite holds a probable reserve of 78.6 million carats.

With two joint ventures in play, Ekati’s ownership gets a bit complicated. Dominion holds 88.9% of the Core zone, which hosts the current operation. Jay is located in the Buffer zone, 65.3%-held by Dominion. The new open pit would rely on Ekati’s existing infrastructure about 30 kilometres away, resulting in a total capex of US$647 million funded through existing loot and internal cash flow.

The project’s new feasibility reported Jay’s total post-tax NPV at US$398 million with a 15.6% IRR. Dominion’s share shows a post-tax NPV of US$278 million and a 16.7% IRR. Jay’s operations would run from 2022 to 2033, two years longer than envisioned by last year’s pre-feas, with ore processing continuing into 2034.

Jay would operate concurrently with the 10.1-million-carat-reserve Sable pipe, already under development, from 2021 to 2023. The current plan has Jay operating solo from 2024 to 2032. But the company intends to “pursue other incremental growth opportunities near our existing operations,” said CEO Brendan Bell.

Last month’s Ekati plant fire, however, forced Dominion to suspend operations on the Pigeon deposit. Mining and stockpiling continues at Ekati’s Misery open pit and Koala underground operations. Preliminary estimates call for about $25 million in plant repairs. Ekati’s 2017 guidance dropped from 5.6 million to 4.7 million carats.

Dominion also has a 40% stake in Diavik, the NWT’s other diamond producer, with Rio Tinto NYSE:RIO holding the rest. The mine’s fourth pipe, the 10-million-carat A-21, has production scheduled for H2 2018. Saying the company’s stock price doesn’t reflect the value of its assets, Dominion this week also announced a proposal to buy back around 7.2% of its issued and outstanding shares.

Meanwhile Canada’s next diamond mine—and the world’s biggest new diamond development—has production slated to begin this quarter. A 51%/49% JV of De Beers and Mountain Province Diamonds TSX:MPV, Gahcho Kué’s expected to average 4.5 million carats a year for 12 years.

Along with those three mines in the NWT’s Lac de Gras region and De Beers’ Victor mine in Ontario, Canada will gain a fifth operation with Stornoway Diamond’s (TSX:SWY) Renard project in Quebec. This one has production scheduled by year-end, bringing an average 1.8 million carats annually for the first 10 years of a 14-year lifespan.

June 22nd, 2016

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June 21st, 2016

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Limestone: Commodity overview Geology for Investors
Texas is waging a new battle—against the entire financial system Equities.com
Lithium penny stock soars on sample results SmallCapPower
Elon Musk: Our lithium-ion batteries should be called nickel-graphite Benchmark Mineral Intelligence
Lithium in Las Vegas: A closer look at the lithium bull The Disruptive Discoveries Journal
A tale of two gluts: Oil and ore approach $50 on opposite paths NAI 500

June 20th, 2016

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Let’s talk prices: Graphite, lithium, fluorspar and TiO2 Industrial Minerals
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Limestone: Commodity overview Geology for Investors
Texas is waging a new battle—against the entire financial system Equities.com
Lithium penny stock soars on sample results SmallCapPower
Elon Musk: Our lithium-ion batteries should be called nickel-graphite Benchmark Mineral Intelligence
Lithium in Las Vegas: A closer look at the lithium bull The Disruptive Discoveries Journal
A tale of two gluts: Oil and ore approach $50 on opposite paths NAI 500