Wednesday 26th September 2018

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Posts tagged ‘frac sand’

And the mania continues

August 10th, 2018

How gold rushes helped make the modern world

by Benjamin Wilson Mountford/La Trobe University and Stephen Tuffnell/University of Oxford | posted with permission of The Conversation

How gold rushes helped make the modern world

Detail from an 1871 lithograph by Currier & Ives portraying the Californian goldfields in 1849.

 

This year is the 170th anniversary of one of the most significant events in world history: the discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California. On January 24, 1848, while inspecting a mill race for his employer John Sutter, James Marshall glimpsed something glimmering in the cold winter water. “Boys,” he announced, brandishing a nugget to his fellow workers, “I believe I have found a gold mine!”

Marshall had pulled the starting trigger on a global rush that set the world in motion. The impact was sudden—and dramatic. In 1848 California’s non-Indian population was around 14,000; it soared to almost 100,000 by the end of 1849, and to 300,000 by the end of 1853. Some of these people now stare back at us enigmatically through daguerreotypes and tintypes. From Mexico and the Hawaiian Islands; from South and Central America; from Australia and New Zealand; from Southeastern China; from Western and Eastern Europe, arrivals made their way to the golden state.

How gold rushes helped make the modern world

JCF Johnson’s Euchre in the Bush, circa 1867, depicts a card game
in a hut on the Victorian goldfields in the 1860s. (Oil on canvas
mounted on board, courtesy of the Art Gallery of Ballarat)

Looking back later, Mark Twain famously described those who rushed for gold as

a driving, vigorous restless population … an assemblage of two hundred thousand young men—not simpering, dainty, kid-gloved weaklings, but stalwart, muscular, dauntless young braves…

“The only population of the kind that the world has ever seen gathered together,” Twain reflected, it was “not likely that the world will ever see its like again.”

Arriving at Ballarat in 1895, Twain saw first-hand the incredible economic, political and social legacies of the Australian gold rushes, which had begun in 1851 and triggered a second global scramble in pursuit of the precious yellow mineral.

“The smaller discoveries made in the colony of New South Wales three months before,” he observed, “had already started emigrants towards Australia; they had been coming as a stream.” But with the discovery of Victoria’s fabulous gold reserves, which were literally Californian in scale, “they came as a flood.”

Between Sutter’s Mill in January 1848, and the Klondike in the late 1890s, the 19th century was regularly subject to such flooding. Across Australasia, Russia, North America and Southern Africa, 19th century gold discoveries triggered great tidal waves of human, material and financial movement. New goldfields were inundated by fresh arrivals from around the globe: miners and merchants, bankers and builders, engineers and entrepreneurs, farmers and fossickers, priests and prostitutes, saints and sinners.

How gold rushes helped make the modern world

A nugget believed to be the first piece of gold
discovered in 1848 at Sutter’s Mill in California.
(Smithsonian National Museum of American History)

As the force of the initial wave began to recede, many drifted back to more settled lives in the lands from which they hailed. Others found themselves marooned, and so put down roots in the golden states. Others still, having managed to ride the momentum of the gold wave further inland, toiled on new mineral fields, new farm and pastoral lands, and built settlements, towns and cities. Others again, little attracted to the idea of settling, caught the backwash out across the ocean—and simply kept rushing.

From 1851, for instance, as the golden tide swept towards NSW and Victoria, some 10,000 fortune seekers left North America and bobbed around in the wash to be deposited in Britain’s Antipodean colonies alongside fellow diggers from all over the world.

Gold and global history

The discovery of the precious metal at Sutter’s Mill in January 1848 was a turning point in global history. The rush for gold redirected the technologies of communication and transportation, and accelerated and expanded the reach of the American and British Empires.

Telegraph wires, steamships and railroads followed in their wake; minor ports became major international metropolises for goods and migrants (such as Melbourne and San Francisco) and interior towns and camps became instant cities (think Johannesburg, Denver and Boise). This development was accompanied by accelerated mobility—of goods, people, credit—and anxieties over the erosion of middle class mores around respectability and domesticity.

But gold’s new global connections also brought new forms of destruction and exclusion. The human, economic and cultural waves that swept through the gold regions could be profoundly destructive to Indigenous and other settled communities, and to the natural environment upon which their material, cultural and social lives depended. Many of the world’s environments are gold rush landscapes, violently transformed by excavation, piles of tailings and the reconfiguration of rivers.

How gold rushes helped make the modern world

The Earth, at the End of the Diggings.
(Courtesy, Ballaarat Mechanics’ Institute)

As early as 1849, Punch magazine depicted the spectacle of the earth being hollowed out by gold mining. In the “jaundice regions of California,” the great London journal satirised: “The crust of the earth is already nearly gone … those who wish to pick up the crumbs must proceed at once to California.” As a result, the world appeared to be tipping off its axis.

In the U.S. and beyond, scholars, museum curators and many family historians have shown us that despite the overwhelmingly male populations of the gold regions, we cannot understand their history as simply “pale and male.” Chinese miners alone constituted more than 25% of the world’s goldseekers, and they now jostle with white miners alongside women, Indigenous and other minority communities in our understanding of the rushes—just as they did on the diggings themselves.

Rushes in the present

The gold rushes are not mere historic footnotes—they continue to influence the world in which we live today. Short-term profits have yielded long-term loss. Gold rush pollution has been just as enduring as the gold rushes’ cultural legacy. Historic pollution has had long-range impacts that environmental agencies and businesses alike continue to grapple with.

At the abandoned Berkley pit mine in Butte, Montana, the water is so saturated with heavy metals that copper can be extracted directly from it. Illegal mining in the Amazon is adding to the pressures on delicate ecosystems and fragile communities struggling to adapt to climate change.

The phenomenon of rushing is hardly alien to the modern world either—shale gas fracking is an industry of rushes. In the U.S., the industry has transformed Williston, North Dakota, a city of high rents, ad hoc urban development and an overwhelmingly young male population—quintessential features of the gold rush city.

In September last year, the Wall Street Journal reported that a new gold rush was underway in Texas: for sand, the vital ingredient in the compound of chemicals and water that is blasted underground to open energy-bearing rock. A rush of community action against fracking’s contamination of groundwater has followed.

The world of the gold rushes, then, is not a distant era of interest only to historians. For better or worse, the rushes are a foundation of many of the patterns of economic, industrial and environmental change central to our modern-day world of movement.

Benjamin Mountford and Stephen Tuffnell’s forthcoming edited collection A Global History of Gold Rushes will be published by University of California Press in October 2018. A sample of their work can also be found in the forthcoming volume Pay Dirt! New Discoveries on the Victorian Goldfields (Ballarat Heritage Services, 2018).

Benjamin Wilson Mountford, David Myers Research Fellow in History, La Trobe University and Stephen Tuffnell, Associate Professor of Modern U.S. History, University of Oxford

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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92 Resources finds high-quality silica potential in B.C. frac sand property, plans drilling for Quebec lithium

March 5th, 2018

by Greg Klein | March 5, 2018

With initial sampling results now in, an eastern British Columbia project shows greater potential to serve growing demand from both solar panel manufacturing and oil and gas exploration. During summer field work at its Golden project, 92 Resources TSXV:NTY collected 60 samples from the property’s Mount Wilson formation. Fifty samples surpassed 98% SiO2 and 22 exceeded 99%, peaking at 99.89%.

92 Resources finds high-quality silica potential in B.C. frac sand property, plans drilling for Quebec lithium

Still to come are frac sand results.

The assays also showed low levels of iron contamination, less than 0.1% Fe2O3 for 55 samples. Boron contamination also rated low, between 3 and 13 ppm. Final boron assays are expected soon, the company added.

Most of the samples came from the easily accessible Frenchman’s Ridge area, where the Mount Wilson formation has been mapped over a strike of about 1.2 kilometres and over 400 metres in width, with thickness interpreted to be at least 50 metres, the company reported.

Encouraged by the program, 92 Resources added another 1,800 hectares to Golden, bringing its size to about 5,000 hectares. The original property sits next to the Moberly silica mine, from where Northern Silica ships material 16 kilometres to a facility capable of processing frac sand and other high-grade silica products. 92 Resources’ new turf covers outcrops of the Mount Wilson formation adjacently east and south of HiTest Sand’s Horse Creek project, which 92 Resources states is reportedly being developed as a silica source for a potential refinery in Washington state.

Regional infrastructure includes highways, rail and power.

In January the company announced Far Resources CSE:FAT joined 92 Resources’ Hidden Lake lithium project under a 90% earn-in. The 1,849-hectare Northwest Territories property has revealed grab sample grades up to 1.86% Li2O, as well as channel sample assays of 1.58% Li2O over 8.78 metres, 2.57% Li2O over 0.75 metres and 233 ppm Ta2O5 over one metre.

Also in January 92 Resources announced plans for three properties acquired last fall in Quebec’s James Bay region. Permitting is now underway for a four- to six-hole, 1,000-metre campaign at the Corvette project, where grab samples from one pegmatite included 0.8%, 3.48% and 7.32% Li2O. Another pegmatite sampled 1.22% Li2O and 90 ppm Ta2O5. The company also sees gold potential in the 3,891-hectare property.

The Pontax project has airborne magnetics and electromagnetics planned for Q1, with summer field work to follow. The work will focus on potential pegmatite trends as well as gold targets on the 5,536-hectare property, which the company considers part of the Eastmain River Volcanic Belt.

In early January 92 Resources closed an oversubscribed private placement of $1.14 million.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

Earn-in brings Far Resources into 92 Resources’ NWT lithium project

January 23rd, 2018

by Greg Klein | January 23, 2018

High-grade sampling and positive Phase I metallurgy have drawn tangible interest to a Northwest Territories hard rock lithium property. In a deal announced January 23, Far Resources CSE:FAT may earn up to 90% of 92 Resources’ (TSXV:NTY) Hidden Lake project 40 kilometres east of Yellowknife. The full 90% would cost Far $50,000, $1.45 million in shares and $2.3 million in spending. 92 would get the cash and $500,000 of the shares on closing, while Far would put $500,000 into the project during the first year to earn an initial 60%. Far would act as project operator.

Earn-in brings Far Resources into 92 Resources’ NWT lithium project

Grab and channel samples from outcropping
pegmatite reveal Hidden Lake’s high lithium grades.

92 stated it would “benefit from bringing in a financially and technically strong partner to further develop the project and, in the process, will become a substantial shareholder of Far Resources with the ability to share in the project’s success.”

With seven known pegmatites, the 1,849-hectare Hidden Lake property has shown grab sample grades up to 1.86% Li2O. Channel sample results include 1.58% Li2O over 8.78 metres, 2.57% Li2O over 0.75 metres and 233 ppm Ta2O5 over 1 metre.

Phase I metallurgy conducted for 92 used conventional methods to produce a high-grade concentrate of 6% to 6.5% Li2O, with recovery rates between 80% and 85%.

The earn-in leaves 92 free to pursue other projects and acquisitions. Its current portfolio includes the Golden frac sand project in eastern British Columbia, adjacent to Northern Silica’s Moberly silica operation, as well as three recently acquired lithium properties in Quebec. A brief site visit to one of them scored a 7.32% Li2O grab sample.

92 closed an oversubscribed private placement of $1.14 million earlier this month.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

Lithium-tantalum sampling, new pegmatite discovery position 92 Resources for NWT drill program

January 12th, 2018

by Greg Klein | January 12, 2018

From pilot plant to the field, 92 Resources TSXV:NTY heralded progress on a number of fronts this week. Two days after reporting metallurgical advances for its Hidden Lake lithium project, the company announced high-grade lithium assays, significant tantalum recoveries and the discovery of a seventh pegmatite. The latest news comes from a recently completed eight-day program on the highway-accessible property 40 kilometres east of Yellowknife.

Lithium-tantalum sampling, new pegmatite discovery position 92 Resources for NWT drill program

Last year’s field work added another known pegmatite, as well as
tantalum potential, to 92 Resources’ Hidden Lake lithium project.

Work included channel sampling on two pegmatites discovered in late 2016, HL6 and HL8, near four other known pegmatites on the property. Eight samples from HL6 surpassed 1% Li2O, with values ranging from 1.05% to 2.57%, the latter standing out as the highest 2017 sample grade. Widths extended from 0.75 metres to one metre.

HL8 compensated for lower lithium numbers with some intriguing tantalum results. Of eight samples reported, Li2O values ranged from 0.12% to 0.74%, with Ta2O5 ranging from 114 ppm to 233 ppm. Seven widths came in between 0.74 and 1.33 metres, while a grade of 162 ppm Ta2O5 extended across 5.1 metres.

“Spodumene-bearing pegmatites are often zoned with distinct zones of lithium and tantalum, as well as zones which overlap,” the company explained. “The discovery of tantalum zones in the area is encouraging and bolsters the project’s potential for tantalum, as well as for coupled zones of lithium and tantalum, to be discovered elsewhere on the property.”

Another encouraging sign is a newly discovered pegmatite, bringing Hidden Lake’s known total to seven. An initial sample from HL13 returned 0.48% Li2O.

92 Resources hopes to return early this year, this time with a rig, to begin building a maiden resource.

Earlier this week the company announced another stage of metallurgical studies suggesting Hidden Lake’s pegmatite can produce high-grade concentrate through conventional processing techniques.

Additionally the company holds three lithium properties in Quebec, where sampling from one project brought assays up to 7.32% Li2O and 90 ppm Ta2O5. 92 Resources also plans a 43-101 technical report for its Golden frac sand project in eastern British Columbia.

92 Resources closed a private placement of $1.14 million the previous week and will further fund Hidden Lake with a $140,000 grant from the NWT Mining Incentive Program.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

Lithium metallurgy produces high-grade concentrate for 92 Resources’ NWT project

January 10th, 2018

by Greg Klein | January 10, 2018

Showing the advantages of coarse-grained pegmatite, further metallurgical tests on hardrock lithium brought impressive results for 92 Resources’ TSXV:NTY Hidden Lake project in the Northwest Territories. The company processed about 400 kilograms of pegmatite collected last year, putting it through a dense media separation mini-pilot plant. The result brought over 40 kilos of spodumene concentrate averaging a high-grade 6.11% Li2O.

Following last month’s results from heavy liquid separation tests, 92 Resources considers the latest work both highly encouraging and in line with expectations. “The test work continues to support that a final overall concentrate grade of 6% to 6.5% Li2O at high recovery (80% to 85%) is achievable using low-cost and conventional processing techniques,” the company stated.

92 Resources now sees two possible approaches for lithium recovery. The first would use flotation only, which produced the successful results released in December. The second would aim for similar results through a combination of flotation and dense media separation. The dual approach offers lower costs, greater control, shorter start-up time and less risk.

Lithium metallurgy produces high-grade 6.11% concentrate for 92 Resources’ NWT project

This graphic illustrates the Hidden Lake flowsheet’s dual approach, in which +0.85 mm material undergoes dense media separation to produce concentrate, tailings and middlings. The middlings then combine with the -0.85 mm material to undergo flotation, producing more concentrate and tailings.

Still to come from the test work are tantalum assays, which will be studied for better recovery. The road-accessible 1,849-hectare property sits 40 kilometres east of Yellowknife.

Apart from the Hidden Lake flagship, 92 Resources picked up three hardrock lithium projects in Quebec’s James Bay region last September. Surface samples from the Corvette property showed results up to 7.32% Li2O, along with anomalous tantalum of 90 ppm Ta2O5.

The company also has a 43-101 technical report planned for its Golden frac sand project in eastern British Columbia.

Last week 92 Resources closed a private placement of $1.14 million.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

Metallurgy brings high grades, impressive recovery for 92 Resources’ NWT lithium project

December 5th, 2017

by Greg Klein | December 5, 2017

Further metallurgical tests for 92 Resources’ (TSXV:NTY) Hidden Lake hardrock lithium project brought “very encouraging results,” the company reported December 5. Heavy liquid separation and bench scale flotation work produced a concentrate with high grades of 6.2% to 6.5% Li2O, with recovery ranging from an impressive 82% to 85% for pegmatite from the Northwest Territories property.

Metallurgy brings high grades, impressive recovery for 92 Resources’ NWT lithium project

The highway-accessible Hidden Lake property
sits about 40 kilometres east of Yellowknife.

The tests were conducted on material screened above 0.85 mm, but indicated the rest of the material would “respond well to flotation, and that a high overall recovery with a combined concentrate grade above 6% Li2O is achievable” using dense media separation and flotation.

“The metallurgical program has advanced significantly further than we had initially anticipated at this stage,” said president/CEO Adrian Lamoureux. “We have now demonstrated the spodumene has low iron, is coarse-grained and well-liberated, and responds strongly to cost-effective beneficiation techniques to produce high-grade concentrate at high recoveries.”

Tests reported in September showed concentrates had lithium extraction rates up to 97%, he added. “We look forward to completing the remaining Phase II [dense media separation] work and evaluating the next steps in flowsheet development.”

92 Resources filed a 43-101 technical report on the project in January.

The company also holds the Pontax lithium property in Quebec’s James Bay region and the Golden frac sand project in eastern British Columbia.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

First visit yields surface grades up to 7.32% on 92 Resources’ new Quebec lithium property

October 5th, 2017

by Greg Klein | October 5, 2017

First visit yields surface grades up to 7.32% on 92 Resources’ new Quebec lithium property

A single day of due diligence on a new acquisition brought high lithium values for 92 Resources TSXV:NTY. Selected grab samples from the Corvette property in northern Quebec assayed 0.8%, 3.48% and 7.32% Li2O at surface from one pegmatite outcrop and 1.22% from another, which also showed an anomalous tantalum result of 90 ppm Ta2O5.

The 3,891-hectare property comprises one of three prospective lithium acquisitions in Quebec’s James Bay region announced last month.

The two spodumene-bearing pegmatites, about 75 metres apart and trending sub-parallel, “highlight the prospective nature of the property,” 92 Resources stated. With only a small part of the property explored so far, the company has more prospecting as well as channel sampling planned before winter sets in.

In September the company announced a two-week program of prospecting and channel sampling at its flagship Hidden Lake lithium project in the Northwest Territories. Follow-up metallurgical results released the same month on a concentrate produced from Hidden Lake material showed an overall extraction rate of 97%.

92 Resources also has a 43-101 technical report planned for its Golden frac sand project in eastern British Columbia.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

92 Resources adds three Quebec properties to its lithium portfolio

September 21st, 2017

by Greg Klein | September 21, 2017

While work continues on the flagship Hidden Lake project in the Northwest Territories, 92 Resources TSXV:NTY expanded its holdings with three more lithium prospects. All located in Quebec’s James Bay region, the newcomers total 5,953 hectares, with each property showing pegmatite outcrop.

92 Resources adds three Quebec properties to its lithium portfolio

An outcrop on the Corvette acquisition shows coarse-
grained spodumene crystals with lengths up to a metre.

The 3,891-hectare Corvette property hosts an outcrop measuring about 150 metres by 30 metres showing abundant coarse-grained spodumene crystals up to one metre in length, the company stated. Other potential pegmatite outcrops along trend are priorities for follow-up work.

Sitting less than 12 kilometres from an all-weather highway, Corvette covers the eastern continuation of the Guyer greenstone belt, offering precious metals potential as well.

On the 1,109-hectare Eastmain property, 92 Resources interprets a large pegmatite outcrop to be along strike from ASX-listed Galaxy Resources’ James Bay deposit. An all-weather highway passes less than seven kilometres away.

The 953-hectare Lac du Beryl property features several pegmatite outcrops, “many of which display characteristic pathfinder minerals commonly associated with spodumene pegmatites,” the company added. Lac du Beryl sits 16 kilometres from a transmission line.

Three days earlier 92 Resources reported a 97% overall extraction rate on a spodumene-montebrasite concentrate produced from Hidden Lake material. The tests used industry-standard techniques, the company stated. Phase II tests are planned while a two-week channel sampling program wraps up.

In eastern British Columbia, the company also holds the Golden frac sand project, which underwent a 10-day field program this summer.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

92 Resources advances NWT hardrock lithium metallurgy

September 18th, 2017

by Greg Klein | September 18, 2017

92 Resources advances NWT hardrock lithium metallurgy

Follow-up tests using standard methods brought high-grade lithium results for 92 Resources’ (TSXV:NTY) Hidden Lake project in the Northwest Territories. After further work on a spodumene-montebrasite concentrate of 6.16% Li2O produced in July, the company now reports an overall extraction rate of 97%. The tests consisted of roasting followed by acid baking and water leaching, industry-standard extraction techniques for lithium, 92 Resources stated.

The next stage calls for magnetic separation, heavy liquid separation and additional flotation on material collected during the current field program. So far work has used analytical reject material, but whole rock material will be preferred for Phase II, the company added.

Earlier this month a crew returned to the property, about 40 kilometres by road from Yellowknife, for a program of channel sampling and prospecting for additional pegmatites.

The summer agenda also included field work at the company’s Golden frac sand project in eastern British Columbia. The property sits adjacent to Northern Silica’s Moberly project, a former source of silica sand for the glass industry that’s now being redeveloped as a frac sand production and processing operation.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.

92 Resources returns to the field at its NWT hardrock lithium project

September 6th, 2017

by Greg Klein | September 6, 2017

Hoping to kick up more evidence of lithium, boots will hit the ground shortly as 92 Resources TSXV:NTY heads back to its Hidden Lake project in the Northwest Territories. The company expects the two-week program to prepare the road-accessible project 40 kilometres from Yellowknife for Phase I drilling later this year.

92 Resources returns to the field at its NWT hardrock lithium project

Plans call for channel sampling on HL6 and HL8, two pegmatites discovered last year that yielded grab samples up to 1.86% Li2O. Prospecting between the HL6 and D12 pegmatites will try to determine whether these two features located about 1.4 kilometres apart could comprise a single body. Regional prospecting will search for additional pegmatites while further channel sampling on the HL1, HL3, HL4 and D12 pegmatites will support ongoing metallurgical tests.

Metallurgical results announced in July on a composite sample from Hidden Lake showed “amenability to simple and conventional spodumene mineral processing methods,” the company stated.

Funding for the field program comes partly from a $140,000 NWT Mining Incentive Program grant.

92 Resources also conducted a 10-day field program this summer on its Golden frac sand project in eastern British Columbia, adjacent to Northern Silica’s Moberly project. A former source of silica sand for the glass industry, Moberly’s undergoing redevelopment as a frac sand production and processing operation.

Last month 92 Resources appointed former Yellowknife MLA David Ramsay to its board of advisers. As a territorial cabinet minister Ramsay’s responsibilities included Industry, Tourism and Investment (which included mining), Justice and Attorney General, Transportation, the NWT Business Development Corp and the Public Utilities Board.

Read Isabel Belger’s interview with 92 Resources CEO Adrian Lamoureux.