Thursday 5th December 2019

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Posts tagged ‘brazil’

Towards a critical resource

June 13th, 2019

Saville Resources exceeds historic high grades for niobium-tantalum in Quebec

by Greg Klein

The project’s first drill campaign in nine years poses a big question: Why was this the project’s first drill campaign in nine years?

Saville Resources/Commerce Resources report best-yet niobium hole from Quebec critical minerals project

Saville president Mike Hodge examines
core at the Niobium Claim Group.

Even in the face of highly encouraging historic niobium-tantalum results, this program’s first hole exceeded expectations. More near-surface high grades and wide widths followed, culminating in a fourth hole that surpassed them all. Now Saville Resources TSXV:SRE looks forward to more drilling to build an inferred resource on the Niobium Claim Group in northern Quebec’s Labrador Trough.

But why the nine-year hiatus? The answer can be illustrated by Commerce Resources’ (TSXV:CCE) Ashram rare earths deposit, two kilometres away. Moving that project towards pre-feasibility took precedence, even when the company found strong niobium-tantalum intercepts on another part of its Eldor property. To give these other critical minerals their due, Commerce and Saville signed an agreement last year allowing the latter company to earn 75% of the 1,223-hectare niobium claims.

Additional high-grade boulder samples renewed interest in a number of prospective areas but Saville’s initial drill program in spring 2019 targeted Mallard, the most advanced zone with 17 historic holes totalling 4,328 metres. The new program added five holes (one hole was lost) and 1,049 metres.

“We were confident that we could improve on the historic drill results and we did that,” notes Saville president Mike Hodge.

Near-surface highlights from the best hole showed 0.8% Nb2O5 over 31.5 metres, 0.79% over 37 metres, 0.67% over 19.95 metres and 0.5% over 33.5 metres. Eleven individual samples from that hole exceeded 1%, with one sample reaching as high as 1.68% over 1.5 metres. (True widths were unknown.) Tantalum and phosphate also brought strong numbers.

A 50-metre step-out east of another of the campaign’s successful holes, 50 metres southeast of a second and 200 metres southeast of a third, EC19-174A was also proximal to impressive historic results.

Saville Resources exceeds historic high grades for niobium-tantalum in Quebec

In just a few of the recent highlights, however, EC19-173 featured 0.66% Nb2O5 over 14.5 metres. EC19-171 hit 0.7% over 38.28 metres, including 1.1% over 5.41 metres. EC19-172 reached 0.62% over 19 metres.

Among tantalum grades were 274 ppm Ta2O5 over 100.8 metres from EC19-172, and 267 ppm over 26 metres from EC19-171.

The step-outs extend Mallard’s strike 100 metres southeast and also suggest a possible northern extension towards the project’s Miranna and Spoke targets, as yet undrilled.

That’s despite very high-grade boulder samples from Miranna showing 2.75%, 4.24%, 4.3% and an exceptional 5.93% Nb2O5.

“These are still untested targets which we believe could have significantly higher grades than Mallard,” says Hodge. “But my first goal would be an inferred near-surface resource in the Mallard area.”

Contributing to that would be historic data, which includes intervals of 0.82% Nb2O5 over 21.9 metres, 0.9% over 4.8 metres and 1.09% over 5.8 metres.

In all, the Niobium Claim Group underwent 41 historic holes for 8,175 metres, with all field work since 2008 conducted by Dahrouge Geological Consulting. Saville has so far exceeded its first-year spending commitment of $750,000 out of a five-year, $5-million exploration agenda that would earn 75% of the project from Commerce.

But if Miranna’s 5.93% Nb2O5 sample looks outstanding, another boulder collected west of the project’s Northwest area soared up to 16.1%, also showing 7,540 ppm Ta2O5.

“That was the highest, but there were plenty in the 3% to 6% niobium range,” Hodge emphasizes.

Saville Resources exceeds historic high grades for niobium-tantalum in Quebec

With overlapping boulder trains on the property, “there are a few locations they could be coming from,” he adds. “But the likelihood of it coming from the Spoke or Miranna areas would be the highest probability.”

Other areas of interest include the Northwest zone, northwest of Miranna. Location of 11 historic holes totalling 2,257 metres, its results included 0.61% Nb2O5 over 12 metres.

South of Mallard, the Star Trench area has four historic holes for 664 metres, with results including 1.5% Nb2O5 and 1,810 ppm Ta2O5 over 0.52 metres, and 1.69% Nb2O5 and 2,220 ppm Ta2O5 over 0.31 metres.

Niobium and tantalum both rank on the U.S. list of 35 critical minerals. Heightened concern has brought concerted American efforts to develop reliable sources and create supply chains domestically and with allied countries. In early June the U.S. unveiled its Energy Resource Governance Initiative to work with allies as part of the president’s critical minerals strategy announced a few days earlier.

Imports provide America’s total supply of both niobium and tantalum. Niobium, used for alloys and super-alloys in jet engines, rockets and other manufactures, comes to the U.S. mostly from one company in Brazil. According to 2018 figures from the U.S. Geological Survey, Brazil mined 88.2% of global supply, while Canada extracted another 10.3%.

Tantalum finds widespread use in electronics as well as super-alloys for jet engine components. USGS numbers from last year attribute 39.5% of global supply to the Democratic Republic of Congo, 27.8% to Rwanda, 8.3% to Nigeria and 6.7% to China. Apart from security of supply, concerns about conflict minerals result from troubling conditions and murky supply routes in the DRC and Rwanda.

Meanwhile Hodge wants to get back to the field. “We made a great first step in expanding on what we had,” he says. “All of these holes ended in a mineralized zone. The reason we stopped them there was to start a near-surface inferred resource. There’s carbonatite with mineralization in niobium, tantalum and phosphate open in all directions, so the results definitely call for more drilling.”

See more highlights from the Niobium Claim Group’s spring 2019 program.

Visual Capitalist considers the hydrogen city: How hydrogen can help achieve zero emissions

May 14th, 2019

by Nicholas LePan | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | May 14, 2019

In the modern context, cities create somewhat of a paradox.

While cities can improve the lives of people and entire nations, they also tend to be the main contributors of pollution and CO2 emissions.

How can we encourage this growth, while also making city energy use sustainable?

Resolving the paradox

This infographic comes to us from the Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association and it outlines hydrogen technology as a sustainable fuel for keeping urban economic engines running effectively for the future.

The hydrogen city How hydrogen can help achieve zero emissions

 

The urban economic engine

Today, more than half of the world’s population lives in cities and, according to U.N. estimates, that number will grow to 6.7 billion by 2050—or about 68% of the global population.

Simultaneously, it is projected that developing economies such as India, Nigeria, Indonesia, Brazil, China, Malaysia, Kenya, Egypt, Turkey and South Africa will drive global growth.

Development leads to urbanization, which leads to increased economic activity:

The difficulty in this will be achieving a balance between growth and sustainability.

Currently, cities consume over two-thirds of the world’s energy and account for more than 70% of global CO2 emissions to produce 80% of global GDP.

Furthermore, it’s projected by the McKinsey Global Institute that the economic output of the 600 largest cities and urban regions globally could grow $30 trillion by the year 2050, comprising two-thirds of all economic growth.

With this growth will come increased demand for energy and CO2 emissions.

The hydrogen-fueled city

Hydrogen, along with fuel cell technology, may provide a flexible energy solution that could replace the many ways fossil fuels are used today for heat, power and transportation.

When used, hydrogen and fuel cell technology creates water vapour and oxygen, instead of harmful smog in congested urban areas.

According to the Hydrogen Council, by 2050 hydrogen could generate annually:

  • 1,500 TWh of electricity

  • 10% of the heat and power required by households

  • Power for a fleet of 400 million cars

The infrastructure requirements for hydrogen make it easy to distribute at scale. Meanwhile, for heat and power, low concentrations of hydrogen can be blended into natural gas networks with ease.

Hydrogen can play a role in improving the resilience of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar, by being an energy carrier. By taking surplus electricity to generate hydrogen through electrolysis, energy can be stored for later use.

In short, hydrogen has the potential to provide the clean energy needed to keep cities running and growing while working towards zero emissions.

See Part 1 of this series: Evolution of hydrogen, from the Big Bang to fuel cells.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

Jair Bolsonaro, now president of Brazil, criticizes the sale of niobium resources to China

November 27th, 2018

…Read more

Brazilian front-runner makes niobium nationalism an election issue

October 25th, 2018

by Greg Klein | October 25, 2018

Whether he’s just another politician on the wrong side of the culture wars or a dangerous demagogue as portrayed by those claiming the correct side, Jair Bolsonaro’s considered the top contender in Brazil’s October 28 presidential vote. One of his less controversial policies involves resource nationalism, specifically regarding niobium.

Brazilian front-runner makes niobium nationalism an election issue

Brandishing a chunk of the stuff in a 2016 YouTube presentation,
Jair Bolsonaro calls on Brazil to enhance a vertically integrated
niobium supply chain to support economic independence.

Bolsonaro calls for Brazil, by far the world’s top producer of the critical metal, to enhance a vertically integrated supply chain for maximum economic gain, according to Reuters. He also opposes a Chinese company mining his country’s reserves, the news agency adds.

Last year Brazil provided 89% of world niobium supply, with Canada ranking second at less than 10%, U.S. Geological Survey data shows. Used in steels and superalloys, niobium’s a vital element to jet engine components, rocket sub-assemblies, and heat-resisting and combustion equipment, the USGS adds. Niobium comprises one of 35 critical elements in an American list drafted last February and confirmed in May.

Most Brazilian supply comes from the Araxa mine complex owned by Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração. But CBMM’s near-monopoly diminished in 2016, when China Molybdenum Co Ltd got Brazil’s Boa Vista niobium complex in a US$1.5-billion purchase from Anglo American. That made China Molybdenum the world’s second-biggest niobium producer, thanks to Brazilian resources and much to Bolsonaro’s ire.

In Reuters’ account of a TV interview last August, he said, “It’s something only we have, we should invest in technology and research to use this mineral. Instead we sell and deliver the mine to them.”

The Chinese are not buying in Brazil. They are buying Brazil.—Jair Bolsonaro

As the Middle Kingdom acquires energy infrastructure as well as resources across Brazil, the South China Morning Post quotes a common Bolsonaro refrain: “The Chinese are not buying in Brazil. They are buying Brazil.”

Chinese diplomats have twice met with Bolsonaro’s aides, hoping to smooth relations with the likely leader, the SCMP states. Requests to meet the candidate himself have so far been spurned.

An open letter signed by Noam Chomsky, Naomi Klein and several others says Bolsonaro “threatens the world, not just Brazil’s fledgling democracy.”

But the country might face other threats as well. Government data released in August shows 63,880 murders last year, a 3% increase over 2016 and a rate of 175 murders per day.

Emerita Resources expands portfolio with Brazilian lithium acquisition

September 12th, 2018

by Greg Klein | September 12, 2018

A company focused on base metals in two continents has broadened its approach by moving into a lithium-producing neighbourhood. By exercising its 100% option, Emerita Resources TSXV:EMO picks up the Falcon Litio MG project, half a kilometre from the Companhia Brasileira de Litio lithium deposit currently being mined. Initial field work on Falcon has found pegmatite dykes similar to mineralized dykes on CBL’s property.

Emerita Resources expands portfolio with Brazilian lithium acquisition

Located in eastern Brazil’s Minas Gerais state, the region is hardly new to Emerita. The state also hosts the company’s 75%-held Salobro zinc project, where drilling wrapped up in July with an initial release of high-grade assays. Vale NYSE:VALE had previously attributed the property with an historic, non-43-101 estimate of 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent for 1.3 million zinc-equivalent pounds, using a 3.5% zinc-lead cutoff. Emerita has a 43-101 resource due imminently.

But location was just part of the reason Emerita considered Falcon to be “an exceptional opportunity to add value at a low cost,” said CEO David Gower. “There has been interest expressed by third parties in potentially getting involved in the Litio project.”

Emerita gets Falcon on issuing a third tranche of 500,000 shares. The vendor retains a 2% NSR. Should the project achieve a resource showing at least 20 million tonnes averaging 1.3% Li2O, with at least half in the indicated or measured categories, Emerita pays the vendor $5 million cash or issues an equal amount in shares.

Besides the two Brazilian projects, the company holds three properties in Spain: Plaza Norte, a 50/50 joint venture on a zinc-lead past-producer; Aznalcollar, with an historic, non-43-101 zinc-lead-copper estimate; and Paymogo, with two historic, non-43-101 zinc-lead estimates.

In July Emerita offered a private placement of up to $3 million.

Emerita Resources finishes drilling, plans Brazil zinc resource estimate in two weeks

July 26th, 2018

by Greg Klein | July 26, 2018

With its initial drill program wrapped up on time and on budget, Emerita Resources TSXV:EMO expects to release a resource estimate for its Salobro zinc project in eastern Brazil within two weeks. The campaign totalled 22 holes for 3,676 metres. Thirteen holes were intended to expand the historic resource and four others twinned historic holes, while five large-diameter holes collected material for metallurgical tests.

Some standout assays from the batch released July 26 include:

Emerita Resources finishes drilling, plans Brazil zinc resource estimate in two weeks

Emerita Resources’ drill program expanded Salobro’s
mineralization without exceeding the previous depth.

Hole 012

  • 11.19% zinc and 1.26% lead over 2.8 metres, starting at 111.65 metres in downhole depth

Hole 013

  • 11.62% zinc and 0.4% lead over 1.71 metres, starting at 102.97 metres

Hole 016

  • 3.65% zinc and 0.2% lead over 8.46 metres, starting at 119 metres

  • 7.71% zinc and 0.99% lead over 3.43 metres, starting at 141.1 metres

The company interprets widths to be close to true widths.

The overall program succeeded in expanding mineralization up dip and along strike, with the historic deposit remaining open at depth, Emerita stated. The results also improve continuity, while geophysical analysis shows potential mineralization plunging to the west.

An historic, non-43-101 estimate compiled by Vale NYSE:VALE calculated 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent at a cutoff of 3.5% zinc-lead.

Adding mineralization that does not require increasing depth should have a positive impact on the PEA results.—David Gower,
chairperson and incoming CEO
of Emerita Resources

“We have increased the limits of the near-surface mineralization, which was a key objective of the program,” pointed out chairperson David Gower. “The NI 43-101 mineral resource estimate that is being prepared will be the basis for the planned preliminary economic assessment and adding mineralization that does not require increasing depth should have a positive impact on the PEA results.”

Effective August 1, Gower and current CEO Michael Timmins swap positions, with Gower becoming CEO and Timmins chairing the board.

Also emphasizing the shallow mineralization, project manager Carlos Cravo added: “The relogging of the historical drilling combined with the new data has resulted in an improved understanding of the deposit morphology that will improve drill targeting and should benefit any future mine plan should the deposit be put into production.”

Emerita holds a 75% share of the 1,210-hectare property, with the remainder held by IMS Engenharia Mineral Ltda. Regional infrastructure includes paved roads, rail, power and water.

In northern Spain’s Reocin mining district, Emerita takes part in a 50/50 joint venture on the Plaza Norte zinc-lead project. The JV has drill permitting underway to update historic work.

Emerita also announced a private placement offered up to $3 million, with proceeds intended for Salobro. The company closed an oversubscribed private placement of $4.24 million last December.

Read more about Emerita Resources.

Emerita Resources steps out to cut 5.7% zinc over 8 metres in Brazil

June 7th, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 7, 2018

Three more holes from eastern Brazil’s Salobro zinc project have Emerita Resources TSXV:EMO encouraged about potential expansion to an historic, non-43-101 Vale NYSE:VALE estimate. The results follow the first two holes, released June 1, of a program that’s expected to sink 23 holes totalling about 3,500 metres. Seventeen holes have been finished so far.

Emerita Resources cuts 5.7% zinc over 8 metres in Brazil

DDH-007 stepped out 100 metres from an historic, non-43-101 interval of 6.09% zinc and 0.73% lead over 10.43 metres. The new intercept hit:

  • 5.7% zinc and 0.84% lead, for 6.54% zinc and lead, over 8 metres, starting at 239.5 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 8.82% zinc and 1.48% lead, for 10.3% zinc and lead, over 4 metres)

Two near-surface holes tested potential for a starter pit in an area where an historic, non-43-101 trench assay showed 1.35% zinc over 22 metres. The new assays show:

DDH-005

  • 4.59% zinc and 0.08% lead, for 4.67% zinc and lead, over 1.5 metres, starting at 65.82 metres

DDH-006A

  • 1.52% zinc and 0.01% lead, for 1.53% zinc and lead, over 3 metres, starting at 26 metres

True widths weren’t provided.

Scheduled for Q3 is a resource to update Vale’s now historic, non-43-101 estimate of 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent, using a 3.5% zinc-lead cutoff. The campaign will also collect 400 kilograms of material for metallurgical tests.

Last week Emerita released the current program’s first two assays, showing 4.05% zinc and 1.24% lead over 9.62 metres, along with 5.15% zinc and 0.51% lead over 3.32 metres. The company also reported that new assays from Vale core showed consistency with historic results, easing the way to a 43-101 resource.

Emerita has a 75% stake in the 1,210-hectare property, with the remainder held by IMS Engenharia Mineral Ltda. The region’s infrastructure includes paved roads, rail, power and water.

Emerita also shares in a 50/50 joint venture on the Plaza Norte zinc-lead project in northern Spain’s Reocin mining district, where the company has drill permitting underway to update historic work.

In December the company closed an oversubscribed private placement of $4.24 million.

Read more about Emerita Resources.

Drilling, re-sampling move Emerita Resources towards Q3 Brazilian zinc resource

June 1st, 2018

by Greg Klein | June 1, 2018

While a rig remains busy, new assays from old core show consistency with historic results, bringing Emerita Resources TSXV:EMO closer to a 43-101 resource on its Salobro zinc project in eastern Brazil.

Drilling, re-sampling move Emerita Resources towards Q3 Brazilian zinc resource

Emerita Resources has assays pending from
another 15 holes so far on its current drill campaign.

The company sent 1,184 duplicate core samples from historic Vale NYSE:VALE drilling to the lab, where 55 samples with intervals grading over 1% zinc were considered for statistical purposes.

Compared with Vale’s data, the new assays demonstrate that “the previous historic results are consistent, unbiased and meet the QA/QC requirements to support a mineral resource estimate to NI 43-101 standards,” Emerita stated.

The results provide “a powerful advantage for the project that saves the company considerable time, money and effort,” commented chairperson David Gower. “The project has an abundance of high-quality historic drilling data that allows us to expedite the program as we develop the Salobro project further.”

At a 3.5% zinc-lead cutoff, Vale’s historic, non-43-101 estimate showed 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent. Hoping to expand those numbers in a 43-101 resource planned for Q3, Emerita has so far completed 17 holes totalling 2,740 metres of an anticipated 23-hole, 3,500-metre program. Last week the company released results from the campaign’s first two holes:

DDH-001

  • 4.05% zinc and 1.24% lead for 5.29% zinc plus lead over 9.62 metres, starting at 257.9 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 9.74% zinc and 3.66% lead for 13.4% zinc plus lead over 2.72 metres)

DDH-002

  • 5.15% zinc and 0.51% lead for 5.66% zinc plus lead over 3.32 metres, starting at 108.38 metres

True widths weren’t provided. The program will also extract 400 kilograms of material for metallurgical tests.

Emerita closed its 75% acquisition of the 1,210-hectare property last March, retaining the right to pick up the other 25%. Regional infrastructure features paved roads, rail, power and water.

In northern Spain’s Reocín mining district the company has drill permitting underway for Plaza Norte, a zinc-lead 50/50 joint venture that also features considerable historic work and regional infrastructure.

Emerita closed an oversubscribed $4.24-million private placement in December.

Read more about Emerita Resources.

Emerita Resources releases first zinc-lead assays from its Salobro project in Brazil

May 23rd, 2018

by Greg Klein | May 23, 2018

The near-term goal is a 43-101 resource to replace an historic estimate as drilling continues at Emerita Resources’ (TSXV:EMO) Salobro zinc project in eastern Brazil’s Minas Gerais state. Out of a planned 23-hole, 3,500-metre campaign, the crew has so far sunk 15 holes totalling 2,133.9 metres, with the first two assays released May 23.

Infill hole DDH-001 was collared within 24 metres of an exceptional historic Vale NYSE:VALE interval of 10.39% zinc and 2.13% lead over 13.92 metres. The new hole revealed:

  • 4.05% zinc and 1.24% lead for 5.29% zinc plus lead over 9.62 metres, starting at 257.9 metres in downhole depth
  • (including 9.74% zinc and 3.66% lead for 13.4% zinc plus lead over 2.72 metres)
Emerita Resources releases first zinc-lead assays from its Salobro project in Brazil

A high-grade historic zinc estimate from
Vale brought Emerita Resources to Brazil.

DDH-002 extended an historic mineralized zone approximately 30 metres up-dip, with an assay grading:

  • 5.15% zinc and 0.51% lead for 5.66% zinc plus lead over 3.32 metres, starting at 108.38 metres

True widths weren’t provided.

Vale’s historic, non-43-101 estimate came to 8.3 million tonnes averaging 7.12% zinc-equivalent using a 3.5% zinc-lead cutoff. Emerita hopes to increase those numbers in a 43-101 resource scheduled for July. The company filed a 43-101 technical report on the 1,210-hectare property in March.

The current program includes six large-diameter holes to collect 400 kilograms of material for metallurgical tests.

Emerita closed its 75% acquisition of Salobro in March, with the right to take on the remaining 25% from IMS Engenharia Mineral Ltda. The region’s infrastructure includes paved roads, cell phone reception, rail, power and water.

Emerita also partners in a 50/50 joint venture on Plaza Norte, a northern Spain zinc-lead project with considerable historic work and regional infrastructure that sits adjacent to the former Reocin mine that produced about 62 million tonnes averaging 11% zinc and 1.4% lead up to 2003. With drill permitting underway, Emerita could produce a maiden resource for Plaza Norte in early 2019.

Last December the company closed an oversubscribed private placement of $4.24 million.

Read more about Emerita Resources.

Emerita Resources chairperson David Gower discusses the Salobro zinc project in Brazil

May 10th, 2018

…Read more