Sunday 22nd September 2019

Resource Clips


Posts tagged ‘BHP Billiton Ltd (BHP)’

Mining returns to the Yukon

September 20th, 2019

Advanced projects prepare to follow Victoria Gold into production

by Greg Klein

Advanced projects prepare to follow Victoria Gold into production

Rich geology trumps challenging geography in Yukon’s appeal to miners.
(Photo: Victoria Gold)

 

If John McConnell seemed a tad tipsy it might have been due to giddiness, not the super-sized wine goblet he brandished. Either way, celebration was in order as the president/CEO of Victoria Gold TSXV:VIT took the podium at the Denver Gold Show this week to preside over a ceremonial first doré bar at Yukon’s new Eagle operation. The event marked not only the resumption of mining in one of the world’s most fabled mining regions, but the beginning of Yukon’s largest-ever gold mine. Meanwhile other companies vie to expand the industry’s territorial presence.

The festivities took place one month ahead of schedule and within a revised budget intended to address a capex miscalculation that marked one of the low points during what McConnell called a decade of ups and downs. Expected to produce an average 200,000 gold ounces annually for 10 years, Eagle currently employs about 230 people, half of them Yukoners.

Advanced projects prepare to follow Victoria Gold into production

Minto’s suspension left Yukon without a mine for
nearly a year, but a new owner plans a Q4 restart.
(Photo: Pembridge Resources)

The territory lost its last mining operation in October, but a new owner plans to bring that one back to production by Q4 this year. Capstone Mining TSX:CS put Minto on care and maintenance as acquisition negotiations faltered, but LSE-listed Pembridge Resources closed the purchase in June. Proven and probable reserves totalling 40,000 tonnes copper, 420,000 ounces silver and 45,000 ounces gold give Minto an estimated four more years of production.

Pembridge hopes to extend that, however, noting that “Minto had successfully replaced and grown reserves by 103%, adding new discoveries each year up until 2013.” That’s when Capstone suspended Minto exploration, after buying the much larger Pinto Valley copper mine in Arizona from BHP Billiton NYSE:BHP.

The central Yukon combined open pit/underground mine began operation in 2007. Pembridge wants its new cornerstone asset to achieve annual production of about 40 million pounds copper in concentrate, along with silver-gold byproducts.

Waiting in the wings with a project comparable to Eagle, Newmont Goldcorp’s (TSX:NGT) Coffee now has a territorial environmental/socio-economic review underway. Like Eagle, this would be an open pit, heap leach operation. The 2016 feasibility study by previous operator Kaminak Gold projected 10 years of mining, averaging 202,000 gold ounces annually based on a probable reserve of 2.16 million ounces. But last year, following Goldcorp’s 2016 acquisition of Kaminak, the new owner slashed that number to 1.67 million ounces.

Goldcorp cited different standards for drill spacing, geological modelling and other criteria but expected to rebuild the reserve with an 80,000-metre infill drill program scheduled for this year. More recently, however, the merged Newmont Goldcorp has talked about divesting some assets, casting uncertainty over Coffee’s near-term agenda.

But by far the territory’s biggest proposed mine would be Western Copper and Gold’s (TSX:WRN) Casino, in west-central Yukon. A 2013 feasibility report foresaw a combined heap leach and milling operation with 22 years of annual output averaging 171 million pounds copper, 266,000 ounces gold, 1.43 million ounces silver and 15.5 million pounds molybdenum.

Advanced projects prepare to follow Victoria Gold into production

Even with a recent feasibility in hand, BMC Minerals
wants to build its Kudz Ze Kayah polymetallic reserve.
(Photo: BMC Minerals)

Although the report boldly envisioned construction beginning in 2016 and commercial production in 2020, the company currently has environmental and engineering studies underway prior to submitting an application for an environmental/socio-economic review. Capex was estimated at $2.456 billion.

Meanwhile Western has two rigs drilling a $3.3-million, 10,000-metre program, with a resource update planned for this year and, coming later, a revised feasibility that the company hopes will extend the mine life.

Operating under the stock market’s radar, privately held BMC Minerals brought its Kudz Ze Kayah polymetallic project in south-central Yukon to full feasibility last July. The report sees a $587-million capex and 20-month construction period for a combined open pit and underground operation producing an annual average of 235 million pounds zinc, 32 million pounds copper, 56 million pounds lead, 7.8 million ounces silver and 56,500 ounces gold.

BMC hopes to lengthen the nine-year mine life by adding reserves and exploring new targets beyond the two zones considered in the feasibility study.

Sharing with Coffee a White Gold district address and a progenitor in legendary prospector Shawn Ryan, White Gold TSXV:WGO holds 35 properties covering some 439,000 hectares. Last June the company released resource updates for its two most advanced deposits. Golden Saddle hosts an open pit resource of 1.01 million gold ounces indicated and 259,600 ounces inferred, along with an underground resource of 12,200 ounces indicated and 54,700 ounces inferred. The Arc deposit adds an open pit resource of 17,700 ounces indicated and 194,500 ounces inferred.

With money from Agnico Eagle Mines TSX:AEM and Kinross Gold TSX:K, each holding 19% of White Gold, the company has a $13-million drilling, trenching and sampling campaign now targeting Golden Saddle and the new Vertigo discovery, along with other areas. Among noteworthy intercepts was 3.59 g/t gold over 68 metres starting from 73 metres at Golden Saddle. Using a method integral to Ryan’s successes, soil sampling surpassed 100,000 ppb gold at the new Titan discovery, the highest value on the company’s database of over 400,000 soil samples.

Taking advantage of a past producer with all permits in place, Golden Predator Mining TSXV:GPY last month stated it began site re-development work and “provided formal notice to the Yukon government to move the Brewery Creek mine into the production phase.” The company has also stated it plans a feasibility study before making a production decision. Located about 55 kilometres east of Dawson City, the open pit and heap leach operation produced about 279,000 gold ounces between 1996 and 2002. The company plans at least 6,000 metres of drilling this year to build on a 2014 PEA.

International Montoro Resources employs high-tech analysis of Elliot Lake-region nickel-copper prospect

September 10th, 2019

by Greg Klein | September 10, 2019

A geophysical analysis on the property released last March found targets described as “good candidates for semi-massive nickel-copper mineralization.” Now International Montoro Resources TSXV:IMT has contracted Mira Geoscience to compile and analyze a much larger data set for the Pecors Lake project, part of the 1,840-hectare Serpent River property in Ontario’s Elliot Lake district.

International Montoro Resources employs high-tech analysis of Elliot Lake-region nickel-copper prospect

Nickel-copper potential brings new interest to
International Montoro Resources’ Serpent River property.

Historic drilling on Serpent’s southwestern area found uranium-rare earths mineralization. But extensive geophysical programs completed last year alerted Montoro to nickel-copper-PGE potential as well. A 3D model revealed that three assumed magnetic anomalies at Pecors actually comprise one contiguous anomaly estimated to be five kilometres long, two kilometres wide and two kilometres deep.

Considered pioneers of advanced geological and geophysical 3D and 4D modelling, Mira Geoscience will enter a library of data into its Geoscience Analyst 3D interactive platform. Included will be Ontario Geological Survey geochem and petrographic studies; OGSEarth data from drilling conducted by Teck Resources TSX:TECK.A/TSX:TECK.B, Rio Tinto NYSE:RIO, BHP Billiton NYSE:BHPand others on or near the property; federal government regional gravity and magnetic surveys; Montoro’s 22 drill holes; and downhole EM data for two holes reaching depths of one and 1.3 kilometres respectively.

In central British Columbia, Montoro had a 43-101 technical study completed in April for its recently acquired Wicheeda North property, adjacent to the Wicheeda rare earths deposit currently being drilled by Defense Metals TSXV:DEFN under option from Spectrum Mining. The report states that Wicheeda North “has the potential to host, and should continue to be explored for, rare earth element mineralization because it occurs within a favourable geological belt known to contain carbonatite-hosted REE mineralization.”

A 3D magnetic inversion was completed in June for the property, which Montoro has expanded to 2,138 hectares.

The company’s portfolio also includes the 2,300-hectare Duhamel property in central Quebec, considered prospective for nickel-copper-cobalt, as well as titanium-vanadium-chromium.

Along with Belmont Resources TSXV:BEA, Montoro shares 50/50 ownership of two uranium properties in northern Saskatchewan’s Uranium City area.

Last month Montoro closed a private placement first tranche of $47,500.

Association for Mineral Exploration names 2018 award winners as Roundup approaches

December 6th, 2018

by Greg Klein | December 6, 2018

As Roundup approaches, the Association for Mineral Exploration names 2018 award winners

The Chidliak discovery brings another potential diamond mine to Canada’s Arctic.
(Photo: De Beers)

 

Mine finders, financiers and builders will be honoured, but so will others including educators and a gold panner, as well as leaders in social and environmental responsibility and in health and safety. It takes a wide range of abilities to supply the world with the stuff we need and the Association for Mineral Exploration recognizes diverse achievements in its Celebration of Excellence awards. Winners were announced on December 6 in advance of AME’s annual Roundup conference scheduled for January 28 to 31 in Vancouver.

As Roundup approaches, the Association for Mineral Exploration names 2018 award winners

Yukon Dan Moore shares an award with geologist
and social responsibility practitioner Peter Bradshaw.

Al McOnie, Seymour Iles and Jared Chipman of Alexco Resource TSX:AXR win the 2018 H.H. “Spud” Huestis Award for Excellence in Prospecting and Mineral Exploration. The trio gets credit for the recent discovery and delineation of over 60 million silver ounces in the Flame & Moth and Bermingham deposits in Yukon’s Keno Hill Silver District.

John McCluskey wins the Murray Pezim Award for Perseverance and Success in Financing Mineral Exploration. McCluskey played a crucial role in acquiring, financing and encouraging the discoveries of La India (Grayd Resources, bought out by Agnico Eagle Mines TSX:AEM in 2012), Mulatos (Alamos Gold TSX:AGI) and Kemess East (AuRico Metals, acquired by Centerra Gold TSX:CG in January), as well as his ongoing success as CEO of Alamos.

Eric Friedland, executive chairperson of Peregrine Diamonds (acquired by De Beers in September), Geoff Woad, former head of world diamond exploration for BHP Billiton NYSE:BHP and Brooke Clements, former Peregrine president, win the Hugo Dummett Award for Excellence in Diamond Exploration and Development for their part in discovering the Chidliak Diamond Province in Nunavut.

Tom Henricksen wins the Colin Spence Award for Excellence in Global Mineral Exploration  for “outstanding contributions to mineral discovery, and being involved in some monumental discoveries and/or acquisitions across the world.”

Matt Andrews and Monica Moretto win the Robert R. Hedley Award for Excellence in Social and Environmental Responsibility for their work with Pan American Silver TSX:PAAS.

Paycore Drilling wins the David Barr Award for Excellence in Leadership and Innovation in Mineral Exploration Health and Safety for the Paycore crew’s rescue operation following a helicopter crash.

Yukon Dan Moore and Peter Bradshaw share the Gold Pan Award for separate endeavours demonstrating “exceptional meritorious service to the mineral exploration community.”

As Roundup approaches, the Association for Mineral Exploration names 2018 award winners

Norman Keevil’s award honours his achievements
in B.C. and adjacent parts of the Cordillera.
(Photo: Teck Resources)

J. Greg Dawson and Victoria Yehl win the Frank Woodside Award for Distinguished Service to AME and/or Mineral Exploration for achievements that include Dawson’s research in land use planning and Yehl’s work as an AME organizer.

AME’s 2019 Outreach Education Fund grants $10,000 each to two groups: MineralsEd for the Kids & Rocks Classroom Workshop, and Britannia Mine Museum for its Education Program.

Norman Keevil, chairperson emeritus/special adviser for Teck Resources TSX:TECK.A/TSX:TECK.B and author of Never Rest on Your Ores: Building a Mining Company, One Stone at a Time, wins a Special Tribute for his achievements and contributions to exploration, discovery and development.

Congratulating the winners, AME chairperson ‘Lyn Anglin said, “The theme of AME’s 2019 Roundup conference is Elements for Discovery and these individuals and teams, through their remarkable efforts in elements of exploration, development and outreach, have generated discoveries and advancements which will bring benefits to the many diverse communities throughout British Columbia and Canada.”

Winners will be feted at the January 30 Awards Gala, part of AME Roundup from January 28 to 31 at the Vancouver Convention Centre East. Two days of short courses precede the event. Discounted early bird registration remains open until 4:00 p.m. December 14. Click here to register.

Read more about AME’s Celebration of Excellence award winners and their achievements.

Gary Vivian of the NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines celebrates Ekati’s 20th year of production and Diavik’s new A21 operation

September 17th, 2018

…Read more

The Northwest Territories celebrates gemstone mining milestones

August 24th, 2018

from the NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines | August 24, 2018

The Northwest Territories diamond mining industry celebrated two milestones this month, gratefully acknowledged by northern government, Indigenous and industry leaders.

The Northwest Territories celebrates gemstone mining milestones

NWT government, miners and Indigenous community representatives
celebrate the official opening of Diavik’s fourth diamond pipe.
(Photo: Rio Tinto)

On August 9, Dominion Diamonds celebrated the 20th year of diamond mining at Ekati, the first diamond mine to have opened in Canada in 1998. An unexpected and initially unbelieved discovery of diamonds by geologists Chuck Fipke and Stu Blusson in 1991 proved that the ground they staked held significant deposits of jewelry-grade diamonds. In partnership with a major global mining corporation BHP Billiton NYSE:BHP, they would see the new Ekati mine approved, constructed and producing high-quality diamonds a short seven years later. The mine is owned and operated today by the Washington Group.

Just a short 30 kilometres to the south, Diavik Diamond Mines celebrated the start of mining of their fourth ore body, named A21, on August 20. The planned US$350-million project was completed ahead of schedule and under budget. Mining and diamond production is expected to reach full production in Q4 2018. As with Diavik’s other three ore bodies, A21 was discovered under the large lake Lac de Gras and required the construction of a highly engineered dyke to allow open pit mining. Diavik’s dyke design received Canada’s top engineering award as a Canadian engineering achievement for its significant positive impact on society, industry or engineering. The Diavik mine is operated today by Rio Tinto NYSE:RIO, which owns 60% of the mine, with the Washington Group owning 40%.

Generations of Northerners have benefited from our diamond mines. Our mining partners have provided thousands of rewarding careers for our residents; enriched our communities through grants, scholarships and contributions; and spent billions with local businesses.—Wally Schumann,
NWT Minister of Industry,
Tourism and Investment

Leaders and representatives of the NWT government and from the Indigenous groups that traditionally used the area participated in and helped celebrate the events at Ekati and Diavik.

In September, the NWT’s newest diamond mine—Gahcho Kué—will celebrate its second anniversary. In that short time, the mine has set production records, has hired over half of its workforce from the North (with one-third Indigenous) and this year has already spent $142.6 million with NWT businesses. The mine is operated by De Beers (51% ownership) and Mountain Province Diamonds TSX:MPVD (49%).

“The Ekati and Diavik mines are world class operations and have helped put Canada on the map as the third most valuable diamond producer in the world,” said Gary Vivian, president of the NWT & Nunavut Chamber of Mines. “Most importantly, along with our third diamond mine Gahcho Kué, they operate to the highest of environmental standards, they continue to create significant socio-economic benefits for the North, and are also leaders in Indigenous reconciliation.”

Since 1996 when construction of Ekati began, all the NWT diamond mines have created significant economic benefits for Canada and for the North. These include:

  • Over 58,000 person years of employment for Canada, with half northern and half of that Indigenous

  • $20 billion in spending, of which nearly $14 billion is northern and $6 billion Indigenous

See Mining North Works, a new website highlighting the opportunities and benefits of NWT and Nunavut mining.

Related:

Canada’s six biggest miners boost exploration spending by 31%: PwC

July 5th, 2018

by Greg Klein | July 5, 2018

Canada’s six biggest miners boost exploration spending by 31%: PwC

(Photos: PricewaterhouseCoopers)

 

The half-dozen Canadian companies among the world’s top 40 miners increased exploration expenditures last year at twice the rate of the others. That info comes from the upbeat results found in PricewaterhouseCoopers’ Mine 2018, a study of the planet’s 40 biggest companies by market cap. The six Canadians spent C$620 million looking for new resources last year, compared with C$473 million in 2016. The report forecasts continued improvement throughout the current year.

Globally, exploration rose 15% in 2017 to US$8.4 billion, according to S&P Global Market Intelligence figures cited by PwC.

Not so impressive, though, was the equity raised on three key mining markets, which fell $1.7 billion last year for the industry as a whole. Especially hard-hit was Toronto, which plunged 36%. Australia slipped 9%, while London actually jumped 47%. However this year’s Q1 investing “reveals that activity in Toronto and Australia is starting to pick up and signals a renewed interest in exploration and early development projects.”

Overall, higher commodity prices propelled the top 40 companies’ revenues 23% to about US$600 billion, with cost-saving efficiencies contributing to a “sharp increase in profits.” The report sees several years of continued growth as global annual GDP increases about 4% for the next five years.

Meanwhile market caps for the top 40 soared 30% last year to US$926 billion.

The top 40 companies’ capex outlay, however, floundered at its lowest level in 10 years. But the authors “expect next year’s level to increase as companies press ahead with long-term strategies, be it growth through greenfield or brownfield investments, or new acquisitions.”

Should that investment fail to materialize, the report asks, “will there be a temptation to spend without sufficient capital discipline when demand outstrips supply?”

At a number of points PwC admonishes miners not to “give in to the impulses” engendered by the previous boom: “Perhaps the most significant risk currently facing the world’s top miners is the temptation to acquire mineral-producing assets in order to meet rising demand. In the previous cycle, many miners eschewed capital discipline in the pursuit of higher production levels, which set them up to suffer when the downturn came.”

Canadians among the 2017 top 40 consisted of the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan (since merged with Agrium to create Nutrien TSX:NTR) in 13th place, Barrick Gold TSX:ABX (14th), Teck Resources TSX:TECK.A and TSX:TECK.B (16th), Goldcorp TSX:G (25th), Agnico Eagle Mines TSX:AEM (26th) and First Quantum Minerals TSX:FM (30th).

The top five companies, holding a top-heavy 47% of the top-40 combined market cap, were BHP Billiton NYSE:BHP, Rio Tinto NYSE:RIO, Glencore, China Shenhua Energy and Vale NYSE:VALE.

In addition to exploration spending, the half-dozen Canadian companies also got special mention for workplace safety, as “world leaders in digital transformation” and for boardroom diversity in which “women make up 25% of directors among Canadian miners, compared to 19% among their global peers.”

Download PwC’s Mine 2018 report.

Emulating success

May 2nd, 2018

Margaret Lake follows Kennady’s playbook in the quest for NWT diamonds

by Greg Klein

With fresh financing and a rig en route, Margaret Lake Diamonds TSXV:DIA has drilling about to begin on its namesake project in the Northwest Territories. As with any outfit in similar circumstances, the company’s optimism has been buoyed by the performance of an illustrious neighbour, in this case Kennady Diamonds. But more objective encouragement comes from the extensive geophysics that determined the targets for Margaret Lake’s maiden drill program. Additionally, the project operator will be the same group that helped deliver success to Kennady.

“Aurora Geosciences acts as project operator for us and also for Kennady,” points out Margaret Lake president/CEO Paul Brockington. “So we’re using the same people who have done all the Kennady work for the last six years.”

Margaret Lake follows Kennady’s playbook in the quest for NWT diamonds

Public tribute came to Yellowknife-based Aurora at Mines & Money London 2016, when Kennady co-won (with NexGen Energy TSX:NXE) the Exploration Company of the Year award. Noting that Aurora had designed and carried out all of the property’s exploration since 2012, Kennady president/CEO Rory Moore said, “Gary Vivian, [then president, now chairperson of Aurora], and Chris Hrkac, [Aurora’s] senior project manager for the Kennady North project, together with their team deserve the lion’s share of credit for the successes that Kennady has enjoyed to date. Their innovative, systematic and dedicated approach to a technically challenging project has resulted in new and unique discoveries, and earned Aurora the respect of its peers in the industry.”

A further testament to their work came just last month as Mountain Province Diamonds TSX:MPVD closed its acquisition of Kennady in an all-share deal valued at $176 million. An MOU between Mountain Province and De Beers considers incorporating Kennady North into the joint venture that comprises their Gahcho Kué mine.

The 23,199-hectare Margaret Lake property sits about nine kilometres north of Gahcho Kué and two kilometres northwest of Kennady North’s Kelvin and Faraday deposits. The Gahcho Kué winter road passes through Margaret Lake.

Aurora’s participation in the project will be nothing new. The company ran the geophysics that brought Margaret Lake to the drill-ready stage and Aurora will return very shortly, this time with a rig. Financing will begin with a $495,000 first tranche that Margaret Lake closed last month, out of a private placement offered up to $2.2 million.

Results from airborne and ground EM, along with airborne gravity/gradiometry pioneered by BHP Billiton NYSE:BHP, show six initial targets. Each features either a gravity low, a bedrock conductor or both, possibly indicating kimberlite. “Our first objective is to see if these targets represent kimberlite and, if they do, the objective then would be to get sufficient kimberlite to analyze it for microdiamonds and indicator minerals,” Brockington explains. “We’ll try to drill as much as we can before spring break-up.”

But while encouraged by his successful neighbour, he’s not basking in reflected glory. Margaret Lake is “a science project,” Brockington emphasizes. “We’re very much relying on these gravity/EM anomalies to help us deliver the goods.”

It’s very clear that when De Beers was there they did not recognize all the kimberlite. They were drilling mag targets but we went in and did ground gravity and EM, and we can see other targets that very strongly suggest more kimberlite.—Paul Brockington, president/CEO
of Margaret Lake Diamonds

Farther north, in the Lac de Gras field hosting the NWT’s Ekati and Diavik diamond mines, Margaret Lake also has work planned for Diagras, where the company holds a 60% stake in a JV with 40% partner Arctic Star Exploration TSXV:ADD. This property hosts 13 kimberlites found by De Beers in the 1990s. Brockington thinks there’s more to be found.

“It’s very clear that when De Beers was there they did not recognize all the kimberlite,” he says. “They were drilling mag targets but we went in and did ground gravity and EM, and we can see other targets that very strongly suggest more kimberlite. We’re definitely going to do more geophysics there in the next few weeks. We hope to get a ground program going to look at other areas that weren’t covered in last year’s program and I think we’ll have a number of drill targets.”

The winter road to Diavik passes through the northwest corner of the 18,699-hectare property.

Looking forward to a busy and prospective period, Brockington says, “We’ve got a lot coming up and, when you look at the activity in the diamond patch, I think we’ve got about as much as anyone.”

Copper crusader

December 29th, 2017

Gianni Kovacevic sees even greater price potential for the conductive commodity

by Greg Klein

Evangelist he may be, but Gianni Kovacevic’s hardly a voice crying in the wilderness. His favourite metal displayed stellar performance last year, reaching more peaks than valleys as it climbed from about $2.50 to nearly $3.30 a pound. But Kovacevic believes copper has a long way to go yet. That will be a function of necessity as the metal shows “the strongest demand growth of any of the major commodities.” Especially persuasive in his optimism, Kovacevic brings his message to the 2018 Vancouver Resource Investment Conference on January 21 and 22.

Gianni Kovacevic sees even greater price potential for the conductive commodity

Increasing copper demand will unlock
lower-grade resources, says Kovacevic.

As a researcher, commentator and investor who’s also the CEO/chairperson of CopperBank Resources CSE:CBK, co-founder of CO2 Master Solutions Partnership and author of My Electrician Drives a Porsche, he brings new approaches that link topics of energy demand, commodity supply and environmental stewardship.

Kovacevic sees a new paradigm driving copper’s future. “The invisible hand in commodities during the last cycle was China,” he says. “Its economic growth just came out of nowhere. This time the invisible hand is this pervasive use of copper in everything that’s electrified. That means even the smallest village in Africa, which per capita has negligible copper consumption, is becoming a line item. When you create, transfer and utilize greener and cleaner energy, it takes more copper by a power of magnitude. For example to establish a megawatt of windpower it takes five times more copper than it does a megawatt of conventional thermal-generated energy.”

Then there’s the battery-powered revolution and the attention it’s brought to lithium, cobalt and graphite. Saying “I like anything in electric metals,” Kovacevic stresses the importance of nickel as well. Still, “copper wins because the interconnectivity will always be copper and copper plays a role in each battery as well.”

That leads to a supply problem that can have only one solution. “I believe we’re going to have to make uneconomic deposits economic. And there’s only one way to do that—with a higher copper price.”

With no foreseeable hope of a copper mining “renaissance” comparable to the effect that fracking brought to oil and gas, the metal will simply require more money. “We’ve got the old legacy mines,” Kovacevic points out. “We’ve spent a lot of money on exploration in the last cycle and didn’t find a lot. What we do have is lower-grade resources. They are simply not economic at a low copper price.”

Gianni Kovacevic sees even greater price potential for the conductive commodity

Kovacevic: Electrical generation, storage and
connectivity put copper at the top of energy metals.

Apart from diminishing grades, the business of putting new mines into operation is “taking longer with water, electricity and permitting issues, and it’s getting into funkier places,” he continues. “The Elliott Wave [technical/fundamental analysis] on copper is $7.50 a pound. I find that very interesting. All the buy-out action in the copper space happened for the most part between 2006 and 2012. The mean price for copper during that time was about $3.50 a pound. The all-time high was about $4.50 for a short while, but the mean was $3.50.”

Copper’s 2017 performance makes that figure look viable again. Kovacevic, however, cites analysis from BHP Billiton NYSE:BHP stating that 75% of future projects will require more than $3.50. “Could we see a scenario in which the copper price goes past the old all-time high and stays there for a while? And will the buy-outs in the next wave, if they occur, be higher on average than those in the previous 2006-to-2012 cycle? I believe the answer will be yes. But if you look at the average grade that went through the top 15 copper producers’ mills in 2010, it was 1.2% copper. In 2016 it was 0.72% copper. So if you were mining 30 million tonnes a year, now you have to mine 40 or 45 million tonnes for the same metal yield. And without higher copper prices, that doesn’t make much of a business case.

“So the first question is, are we going to need more copper in the next five, 10, 15 years? The answer in my opinion is yes. In fact it has the strongest demand growth of any of the major commodities. And where will that copper come from? Well, it’s going to come from a mix of places but we’ll have to make these projects economic. That should bode well for people who have invested in the copper junior space.”

Addressing the topic of how investors might look at the energy revolution in 2018 and beyond, Kovacevic speaks at the 2018 Vancouver Resource Investment Conference, to be held at the Vancouver Convention Centre West from January 21 to 22. Click here for more details and free registration.

Visual Capitalist: Nickel, secret driver of the battery revolution

October 30th, 2017

by Jeff Desjardins | posted with permission of Visual Capitalist | October 30, 2017

Nickel, the secret driver of the battery revolution

 

Commodity markets are being turned upside down by the EV revolution.

But while lithium and cobalt deservedly get a lot of the press, there is another metal that will also be changed forever by increasing penetration rates of EVs in the automobile market: nickel.

This infographic comes to us from North American Nickel TSXV:NAN and it dives into nickel’s rapidly increasing role in lithium-ion battery chemistries, as well as interesting developments on the supply end of the spectrum.

Nickel’s vital role

Our cells should be called nickel-graphite, because primarily the cathode is nickel and the anode side is graphite with silicon oxide.—Elon Musk,
Tesla CEO and co-founder

Nickel’s role in lithium-ion batteries may be under-appreciated for now, but certainly one person familiar with the situation has been vocal about the metal’s importance.

Indeed, nickel is the most important metal by mass in the lithium-ion battery cathodes used by EV manufacturers—it makes up about 80% of an NCA cathode and about one-third of NMC or LMO-NMC cathodes. More importantly, as battery formulations evolve, it’s expected that we’ll use more nickel, not less.

According to UBS, in its recent report on tearing down a Chevy Bolt, here is how NMC cathodes are expected to evolve:

Cathode Year Nickel Manganese Cobalt
NMC Present 33% 33% 33%
NMC 2018 60% 20% 20%
NMC 2020 80% 10% 10%

The end result? In time, nickel will make up 80% of the mass in both NCA and NMC cathodes, used by companies like Tesla and Chevrolet.

Impact on the nickel market

Nickel, which is primarily used for the production of stainless steel, is already one of the world’s most important metal markets, at over $20 billion in size. For this reason, how much the nickel market is affected by battery demand depends largely on EV penetration.

A shift of just 10% of the global car fleet to EVs would create demand for 400,000 tonnes of nickel, in a two-million-tonne market. Glencore sees nickel shortage as EV demand burgeons.—Ivan Glasenberg,
Glencore CEO

EVs currently constitute about 1% of auto demand—this translates to 70,000 tonnes of nickel demand, about 3% of the total market. However, as EV penetration goes up, nickel demand increases rapidly as well.

The supply kicker

Even though much more nickel will be needed for lithium-ion batteries, there is an interesting wrinkle in that equation: most nickel in the global supply chain is not actually suited for battery production.

Today’s nickel supply comes from two very different types of deposits:

  • Nickel laterites: Low-grade, bulk-tonnage deposits that make up 62.4% of current production

  • Nickel sulphides: Higher-grade, but rarer deposits that make up 37.5% of current production

Many laterite deposits are used to produce nickel pig iron and ferronickel, which are cheap inputs to make Chinese stainless steel. Meanwhile, nickel sulphide deposits are used to make nickel metal as well as nickel sulphate. The latter salt, nickel sulphate, is what’s used primarily for electroplating and lithium-ion cathode material, and less than 10% of nickel supply is in sulphate form.

Although the capacity to produce nickel sulphate is expanding rapidly, we cannot yet identify enough nickel sulphate capacity to feed the projected battery forecasts.—Wood Mackenzie

Not surprisingly, major mining companies see this as an opportunity. In August 2017, mining giant BHP Billiton NYSE:BHP announced it would invest $43.2 million to build the world’s biggest nickel sulphate plant in Australia.

But even investments like this may not be enough to capture rising demand for nickel sulphate.

Although the capacity to produce nickel sulphate is expanding rapidly, we cannot yet identify enough nickel sulphate capacity to feed the projected battery forecasts.

Posted with permission of Visual Capitalist.

Finland’s Arctic welcome

August 2nd, 2017

Arctic Star finds the Scandinavian north an hospitable place for diamond exploration

by Isabel Belger

Update: On November 21, 2017, the company announced Scott Eldridge’s appointment as president/CEO, while Patrick Power became executive chairperson.

Isabel Belger

Isabel Belger

Isabel: I would like to introduce the CEO and president of Arctic Star Exploration TSXV:ADD, Patrick Power. Hi Patrick, it is a pleasure to talk to you again.

To give the readers a chance to get to know you a bit, would you be so kind as to tell more about your background and your experiences in the mineral exploration business?

Patrick: I started in the business as a floor trader in 1984. I did that until 1990. In that period I met someone who became soon very prolific in the diamond world, Chuck Fipke. He found the Ekati mine, the first diamond mine in Canada and he got my interest up in diamonds and the exploration for diamonds. When I finished with the floor in 1990, I joined up with a company called Kelco Resources and I became a director there. That is how I got involved with the diamond world in Canada. Subsequent to that, I worked with a company called Montello Resources, and became the president and CEO. We did a lot of diamond exploration with that company from 1993 to 2000, primarily in Alberta.

We found the Legend field in Alberta with our venture partner Canaccord Canada, which is a Rio Tinto company. We didn’t have the numbers in the pipes that we wanted to. So my partner Tom Yingling and I started our own company called Arctic Star Exploration. We started with a diamond project in Manitoba with Rio Tinto. It kicked off with that project. We never did intersect in kimberlites. Shortly after that, we managed to encourage Buddy Doyle to leave Rio Tinto and he joined us on the Arctic Star board. That happened in 1996. Buddy Doyle brought over a project with him that we called Credit Lake. We spent about $25 million on Credit Lake over a period of seven to 10 years I believe. It was a long time. It just ended recently.

Isabel: Interesting! That tells already a bit of the history of Arctic Star itself. Congratulations on the news on a new member of the board and your new project in Finland. What made the connection to Finland?

Arctic Star finds the Scandinavian north an hospitable place for diamond exploration

Patrick: Thank you, we are very excited and happy about both. It was about 2006 when Buddy Doyle looked at this project we just took into the company. We made an offer for a percentage of it. But they wanted €12.5 million for 25% of it, which we didn’t have the ability to do back then. Then 2008 came and everything became really difficult for all resource companies, specifically for diamond companies. It became very, very difficult.

Roy Spencer, who you could call the father of the Cinnamon project, found the Grip pipe, 450 kilometres east in Russia as the president of Arctic Angel in 1996. That turned out to be a mine, which started producing about two years ago. But as usual in Russia, he got kicked out before it became productive. He traced chemistry trails to the Finnish border and all those trails originated in Finland somewhere.

Isabel: What makes you so excited about this project?

Patrick: No exploration was done there in historical terms. You cannot tell the quality of the diamonds from the chemistry, but usually you can tell the amount of diamonds. All that chemistry was flooding in over 80 kilometres with no answers as to the sources. In 2007, Roy drilled first in this new field. The important part of this is that fields usually have a minimum of 30 and a high of 300 pipes. The upside potential is that it is the first pipe in a new field and that is extremely important because it has good chemistry. It is a great jurisdiction, Finland. A couple of years ago, the Fraser Institute made Finland the number one mining jurisdiction in the world. Mining and exploration friendly!

Infrastructure-wise, the Black and White Wolf, which were the two first pipes discovered—they might actually be one, because they are only 48 metres apart, we will know more about this after further geophysics being done—are only two miles away from a bus stop. Compared to Canada this is amazing infrastructure and that translates right into that you would need far less grade to become a mine. You can have a lot less compared to the north of Canada in order to be still productive. That is a big point! Also it is a very stable country since it is rated a great jurisdiction to be in. We have got Roy on the board now, the man who found this particular discovery when he was with a different company. Another interesting fact: Roy was Buddy Doyle’s first boss at Rio Tinto. They were in the outback of Australia together for two years looking for diamonds. That was more than 30 years ago. And now they are reunited. So the team is back together again. This is one of the prime reasons we got this project because of this relationship between Buddy and Roy; Roy wanted Buddy to lead the project.

Isabel: What is the plan of the re-united team now?

The project offers everything if you are looking for diamonds. Great jurisdiction, great infrastructure, it is a new field, and it has got history in the same craton with productive mines in Russia.—Patrick Power

Patrick: We are going to get out there. We will go back to the Black and the White Wolf, the two pipes that he found in 2006/2007. We will do some geophysics on top of it that wasn’t done 10 years ago. We want to see if they join, get bigger, have multiple phases, do some more drilling, etc. With those two pipes, or maybe it is one, we can potentially make a mine. So there is work to do on the first two pipes of a new field. We expect to find a lot more pipes and that is exciting because the chemistry going into them is dynamic. The project offers everything if you are looking for diamonds. Great jurisdiction, great infrastructure, it is a new field, and it has got history in the same craton with productive mines in Russia.

Isabel: Let me interrupt you for a moment. Could you explain what a craton is?

Patrick: Sure. A craton is a thick, old chunk of continental plate where diamonds form. Kimberlite pipes are created when magma bubbles up through a craton, expanding and cooling on its way up.

I am really glad that we have got all that exceptional expertise within Arctic Star…. Roy was part of the team that found Orapa, the second-largest producing mine in the world that is in Botswana. So we have got lots of positive diamond experience with the two guys, plus they work together and like each other. Their records speak for themselves. They are probably the two most awesome diamond guys with that combined experience and mine-finding ability. They are pretty amazing. We’ve got the best people in the world.

Isabel: Yes, it sounds like it! So the next step is to do more work on your new project. Will you drill, and how deep will you have to drill?

Patrick: The two pipes are very close to the surface, so it is not that deep at all. We have two phases of two programs here. The first program will be carried out on Black and White Wolf, the two existing kimberlites. We will do geophysics on the ground, to determine whether they get larger, whether they come together and whether they have multiple phases. We will also put more drill holes into it to get more samples to get a better diamond count. Buddy thinks we need about 1,000 kilograms before he can make a judgement if we go ahead with it or if we drop it, so we only have a very small amount of material so far. We will take a lot more tonnage out of these drill holes.

Arctic Star finds the Scandinavian north an hospitable place for diamond exploration

Arctic Star VP of exploration Buddy Doyle collecting
float samples at the Timantti project in Finland.

And then out of a bigger concept, we have 250 hectares of mineral claim permitted; 140,000 square kilometres around it. So on that bigger puzzle we could encompass the entire field. We are going to fly EM and mag first and then we want to fly a gravity survey, which is quite expensive. It costs probably about three to four million dollars to get the gravity survey done, but it will be a tool that will be very useful. It has not been used that much in the diamond world; it is only a few years old. Gravity is a very difficult thing to produce on the ground. There are a lot of factors involved with that. This new tool that was developed by the U.S. military was re-developed into a commercial application by BHP and has been on the market for just a few years. Very expensive!

So that is what we plan to do on the big package, not just the claims we acquired, but the much bigger exploration permits that we are in the process of acquiring from the government. We think that this would give us the entire field picture. We will be able to prospect for the pipes in that field. That will be a big thing! We think there are a lot of pipes in this area. If the chemistry is good, it is suggested to have a lot of diamonds. But I repeat to state that it doesn’t tell you the quality of diamonds, but the quantity of diamonds.

Isabel: What is the time frame for that? This is not going to happen this year, is it?

Patrick: The only thing that is restricting us up there is the darkness. The latitude is pretty high, but it is not as cold as in northern Canada. So there is no temperature issue and again the infrastructure is great. It is just within the dark months that we can’t really do much.

Isabel: What is going on at your Cap property in northeast B.C.?

Patrick: In 2008 we diversified a bit from diamonds. We picked up a project from Zimtu [TSXV:ZC]. It is Jody Dahrouge [of Dahrouge Geological Consulting] who has been doing all the work on it for us. We spent only about $1 million developing a really nice niobium and rare earth target. It is probably in carbonatite; we are drill-testing as we speak. It has really good niobium numbers on surface and it is prospective. We decided with a million dollars into it, we need to drill it right now and we are crossing our fingers. It could be something really interesting. If we are successful, we are probably going to spin it out into a new company. We don’t want to mix niobium and diamonds. It will benefit the shareholders with a new share in a new company and we will staff it with people that know a lot about niobium.

Isabel: That sounds like a good plan! How much money do you have in the bank?

Patrick: We are planning to finance soon.

Isabel: How much of Arctic Star is held by the management?

Patrick: That sums up to be 25% by now.

Isabel: What do you like about the mineral exploration business?

Patrick: It is a difficult business, but it can be explosive on the upside. That is the thrill I like about it, which makes the difficult part worthwhile.

Isabel: What is your favourite commodity and why?

Patrick: Definitely diamonds! The reason for that is because it is so hard to find an economic deposit. It is very challenging.

Isabel: Good luck with the ongoing drilling in B.C. and with the new project in Finland. Thank you so much for your time and your insights. It is always a pleasure to talk to you.

Patrick: Thanks for having me, Isabel.

Patrick Power

Patrick Power, president/CEO
of Arctic Star Exploration

Bio

Patrick Power is a seasoned venture capitalist and financier with over 20 years of experience as a stock market professional and as director of public companies. He has been president and CEO of Arctic Star since its inception in 2002. Additionally, Mr. Power serves as a director of other mineral exploration companies. Arctic Star benefits from Mr. Power’s wealth of experience as a shrewd dealmaker, an adept financier and a tireless, results-driven leader of dynamic public companies. The company enjoys Mr. Power’s large network of contacts within the industry, his enthusiasm and his efforts as a member of the audit and remuneration panels.

Fun facts

My hobbies: Travelling and horse racing

Sources of news I use: Internet

My favourite airport: London Heathrow

My favourite tradeshow: PDAC in Toronto

My favourite commodity: Diamonds

With this person, I would like to have dinner: My wife

If I could have a superpower, it would be: Power for peace

Read more about Arctic Star Exploration here and here.